All Floras      Advanced Search
FNA Vol. 7 Page 23, 24, 29, 30, 31, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 48, 49, 51, 57, 61 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae

2b. Salix Linnaeus subg. Salix

Shrubs or trees, 1-25 m, usually not clonal, or clonal by stem fragmentation. Stems usually erect (pendulous in S. babylonica); branches flexible to highly brittle at base, not glaucous, (usually slightly or highly glossy). Buds alba-type, scale margins connate. Leaves: stipules on early ones usually absent or rudimentary, sometimes foliaceous, on late ones rudimentary or foliaceous, (deciduous spring or autumn); petiole convex, flat, or shallowly to deeply grooved adaxially, not glandular, or with spherical or foliaceous glands distally or throughout; largest medial blade amphistomatous, hemiamphistomatous, or hypostomatous, lorate, narrowly oblong, narrowly elliptic, elliptic, lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or oblanceolate, 2-14.4 times as long as wide, angle of base and of apex less than 90o, surface hairs white and/or ferruginous; juvenile blade hairs white and/or ferruginous. Catkins flowering as leaves emerge (sometimes before in S. babylonica), from lateral buds; staminate on flowering branchlet or sessile, usually slender or stout, sometimes subglobose; pistillate on flowering branchlet, densely or loosely flowered, slender, stout, or subglobose; floral bract usually tawny, sometimes greenish, apex usually entire, toothed, or erose, rarely sinuate; pistillate bract deciduous or persistent after flowering. Staminate flowers: abaxial nectary usually present; stamens 2-10; filaments distinct or connate less than 1/2 their lengths, hairy on proximal 1/2 or basally, rarely glabrous; anthers usually yellow, sometimes reddish turning yellow. Pistillate flowers: abaxial nectary absent or present; ovary not glaucous, glabrous or, rarely, villous, beak usually gradually tapering to styles; ovules 2-36 per ovary; styles connate or distinct; stigmas usually flat, abaxially non-papillate, tip rounded, sometimes stigmas cylindrical, or 2 plump lobes.

Species 85 (9 species in the flora): North America, Mexico, South America, Eurasia.

1 Trees; stems pendulous; pistillate bracts persistent after flowering; pistillate adaxial nectaries longer than stipes; styles 0.15-0.3 mm; stipes 0-0.2 mm; ovules 2-8 per ovary; capsules 1-3.5 mm; stamens 2   [2b1. Salix sect. Subalbae].
+ Shrubs or trees; stems erect; pistillate bracts deciduous after flowering (persistent in S. maccalliana, sometimes persistent until fruiting in S. triandra); pistillate adaxial nectaries shorter than or equal to stipes; styles 0.1-1.2 mm; stipes 0.2-4 mm; ovules 8-30 per ovary; capsules 3.5-12 mm; stamens 2-10   (5)
2 Branches yellowish, yellow-green, or yellow-brown   Salix ×sepulcralis (in part) [p. 40]
+ Branches yellow-brown to red-brown or gray-brown   (3)
3 (2) Pistillate catkins on flowering branchlets (0-)2-4 mm; ovaries: beak abruptly tapering to styles; anthers 0.4-0.5 mm.   8 Salix babylonica
+ Pistillate catkins on flowering branchlets 3-14 mm; ovaries: beak gradually tapering to styles; anthers 0.5-0.8 mm   (4)
4 (3) Petioles short-silky adaxially; branches yellowish, yellow-green, or yellow-brown; staminate catkins moderately densely flowered, slender, nectaries distinct   Salix ×sepulcralis (in part) [p. 40]
+ Petioles glabrous, pilose, or velvety to glabrescent adaxially; branches yellow-brown, gray-brown, or red-brown; staminate catkins loosely flowered, stout, nectaries connate and shallowly cup-shaped   Salix ×pendulina [p. 41]
5 (1) Petioles without spherical glands or lobes distally; stamens 2; anthers purple turning yellow in age; ovaries densely villous; pistillate bracts persistent after flowering; leaf blades: abaxial surface not glaucous [2b4. Salix sect. Maccallianae].   15 Salix maccalliana
+ Petioles with spherical glands or lobes distally; stamens 2 or 3-10; anthers yellow; ovaries glabrous; pistillate bracts deciduous after flowering (sometimes persistent in S. triandra); leaf blades: abaxial surface glaucous or not   (6)
6 (5) Largest medial blades: abaxial surface usually not glaucous; stamens 3-10   [2b3. Salix sect. Salicaster (in part), 2b5. Salix sect. Triandrae].
+ Largest medial blades: abaxial surface glaucous (except usually not glaucous in S. triandra); stamens 2 or 3-6   (11)
7 Largest medial blades: adaxial surface dull or ± slightly glossy; styles 0.2-0.3 mm.   16 Salix triandra (in part)
+ Largest medial blades: adaxial surface slightly or highly glossy; styles 0.3-1 mm   (8)
8 (7) Stipules on early leaves foliaceous; juvenile blade hairs white and ferruginous; branchlets usually hairy, sometimes glabrescent.   13 Salix lucida
+ Stipules on early leaves absent or rudimentary; juvenile blades glabrous; branchlets glabrous   (9)
9 (8) Largest medial blade margins crenate or crenulate; stamens 2; floral bracts 0.8-1.3 mm; capsules 3-5 mm.   10 Salix euxina
+ Largest medial blade margins serrulate; stamens 3-10; floral bracts 1.2-4 mm; capsules 6-12 mm   (10)
10 (9) Branches highly glossy; pistillate catkins slender to stout; floral bracts sparsely hairy proximally; ovaries: beak gradually tapering to styles.   11 Salix pentandra
+ Branches dull or slightly glossy; pistillate catkins stout to globose; floral bracts moderately densely hairy; ovaries: beak slightly bulged below or abruptly tapering to styles.   12 Salix serissima
11 (6) Juvenile and largest medial blades with white hairs; stamens 2   [2b2. Salix sect. Salix].
+ Juvenile and largest medial blades with white and ferruginous hairs; stamens usually more than 2   [2b3. Salix sect. Salicaster (in part)].
12 Largest medial blades persistently silky on both surfaces; petioles long- silky adaxially; styles 0.2-0.4 mm; branches flexible to ± brittle at base.   9 Salix alba
+ Largest medial blades glabrescent or glabrous on both surfaces; petioles glabrous or puberulent adaxially; styles 0.4-1 mm; branches highly brittle at base   Salix ×fragilis [p. 42]
13 Petioles convex to shallowly grooved adaxially; leaf blades: abaxial surface long-silky to glabrescent; stipes 0.3-0.6 mm; pistillate flowering branchlets 8-16 mm   Salix ×jesupii [p. 43]
+ Petioles deeply grooved adaxially; leaf blades: abaxial surface usually glabrous or pubescent; stipes 0.8-2 mm; pistillate flowering branchlets 6-56 mm   (14)
14 (13) Stipules: apex convex or rounded; petioles: margins not touching; stamens 3-5.   14 Salix lasiandra
+ Stipules: apex acuminate or acute; petioles: margins covering groove; stamens 3.   16 Salix triandra (in part)

  • List of lower taxa


  •  |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |