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Habenaria Willd.


Terrestrial herbs with fleshy globose or ellipsoid tuberoids. Stems erect, with many cauline or basal leaves, with sheaths at base. Leaves usually lanceolate or oblong, sessile, not jointed at base. Inflorescence terminal, racemose or spicate, many-flowered. Flowers greenish or white; sepals free, subequal, dorsal one often connate with petals forming hood; petals narrow, entire or deeply divided; lip continuous to base of column, usually 3-lobed or 3-partite, base produced into straight or curved spur; column stout; anther erect, basally connate with column, cells widely divergent below, with auricles or staminodes on outer side, base often produced into long tube; pollinia 2, sectile, each with long caudicle attached to viscidium; stigma 2-lobed, lobes or stigmaphore clavate, distinctly separated and stalked; rostellum broad and thick, roof-like, produced on both sides into distinct lateral arms parallel to tube of anther cell; viscidia naked, not enclosed by bursicle.

About 600 species, widespread in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, 8 species in Taiwan.


1 Leaves evenly distributed on stem; flowers white, lateral lobes of lip triangular or falcate.   Habenaria dentata
+ Leaves only on mid point or lower portion of stem; flower greenish, lateral lobes of lip linear or filiform.   (2)
2 (1) Stem less than 10 cm long between leaves and tuberoids; petals ovate or triangular falcate, not divided.   (3)
+ Stem usually more than 10 cm long between leaves and tuberoids; petals linear or deeply divided into filiform segments.   (5)
3 (2) Peduncle short hispid; spur strongly curved, slender but enlarged and fusiform apically.   Habenaria ciliolaris
+ Peduncle glabrous; spur neither strongly curved nor abruptly enlarged apically.   (4)
4 (3) Lateral lobes of lip 4-5 mm long; central lobe of lip curved upward.   subsp. longiracema
+ Lateral lobes of lip more than 7 mm long; central lobe of lip pendulous.   Habenaria iyoensis
5 (2) Petals linear, not divided.   Habenaria stenopetala
+ Petals deeply divided into filiform segments.   (6)
6 (5) Lip mainly 3-partite, segments variously divided into many filiform threads.   Habenaria polytricha
+ Lip definitely 3-partite, segments linear, entire   (7)
7 (6) Petals and lip pilose; spur dilated into clavate or fusiform apical sac.   Habenaria petelotii
+ Petals and lip glabrous; spur not dilated apically.   Habenaria pantlingiana

Lower Taxa

Related Synonym(s):


Related Objects  

Flora of China  
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