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47. Aeschynanthus Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 14: 42. 1823(1825).

芒毛苣苔属 mang mao ju tai shu

Trichosporum D. Don.

Shrubs or climbers, epiphytic or epipetric, not rhizomatous. Stems often pendent, branched or unbranched. Leaves usually many, along stem, opposite, sometimes whorled, equal to subequal in a pair; leaf blade glabrous, rarely puberulent or pubescent, base cuneate to rounded or attenuate. Inflorescences umbel-like, lax or sometimes dense, axillary or pseudoterminal, 1-10-flowered cymes; bracts 2, opposite. Calyx actinomorphic, 5-sect from base to 5-lobed; segments equal, rarely unequal. Corolla red to orange, seldom greenish, yellow, or white, zygomorphic, inside sparsely puberulent, sparsely glandular puberulent, glabrous, or with a hair ring; tube narrowly tubular to funnelform-tubular, often curved, not swollen, much longer than limb, 0.4-1.5 cm in diam.; limb indistinctly or distinctly 2-lipped; adaxial lip 2-lobed; usually equalling, occasionally to 1/2 X length of abaxial lip; abaxial lip 3-lobed, lobes equal or subequal, apex rounded to acute. Stamens 4, adnate to corolla tube near or above middle, usually exserted; anthers basifixed, usually coherent in pairs at apex, thecae parallel, not confluent, dehiscing longitudinally; connective not projecting; staminode 1 or absent, adnate to adaxial side of corolla tube. Disc ringlike. Ovary linear, 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal, projecting inward, 2-cleft. Stigma 1, terminal, capitate to depressed-globose, undivided. Capsule straight in relation to pedicel, linear, much longer than calyx, dehiscing loculicidally to base; valves 2 or 4, straight, not twisted. Seeds with 1(or 2-50) hairlike appendages, opposite end with 1 hairlike appendage, seldom 1 linear appendage at each end.

About 140 species: Asia, Pacific Islands; 34 species in China.

The flowers of Aeschynanthus are strongly prontandrous. Consequently, the length of filaments and pistil will vary greatly during the duration of an individual flower. The measurements included in this treatment do not always reflect this variability, and diagnostic use of these characters should be avoided.

1 Corolla inside with 5 tufts of hairs above base; seeds with 25-50 hairlike appendages at hilar end (unknown in A. sinolongicalyx).   (2)
+ Corolla inside glabrous to pubescent or glandular, without tufts of hairs (unknown in A. maculatus); seeds with 1 or 2 hairlike or linear appendages at hilar end (unknown in A. angustioblongus. A. angustissimus. A. dolichanthus. A. lancilimbus. A. lasianthus. A. lasiocalyx. A. medogensis. A. pachytrichus. A. planipetiolatus, and A. tubulosus).   (4)
2 (1) Calyx 3-3.3 cm; corolla 2.4-2.8 cm; stems to 5 m   34 Aeschynanthus sinolongicalyx
+ Calyx to 1.5 cm; corolla 1.8-2 cm; stems to 40 cm.   (3)
3 (2) Calyx and corolla glabrous outside; calyx segments ca. 15 mm; corolla yellow-green; seeds with ca. 25 hairlike appendages at hilar end; leaves always opposite; leaf blade with adaxial surface drying wrinkled   32 Aeschynanthus longicaulis
+ Calyx glandular puberulent outside, ca. 5 mm; corolla red, sparsely puberulent outside; seeds with ca. 50 hairlike appendages at hilar end; leaves opposite or in whorls of 3; leaf blade with adaxial surface drying nearly smooth   33 Aeschynanthus poilanei
4 (1) Leaf blade puberulent to pubescent at least on one surface, often glabrescent.   (5)
+ Leaf blade glabrous.   (9)
5 (4) Leaf blades drying papery, margin often 1- or 2-denticulate near apex, abaxially rust-brown pubescent; stems 20-50 cm; pedicel ca. 3 mm; corolla yellow to white; anthers of 4 stamens coherent at apex, ca. 3 mm   22 Aeschynanthus denticuliger
+ Leaf blades drying leathery, margin entire, abaxially puberulent; stems to 30 cm; pedicel 4-10 mm; corolla red, often with yellow spots on central abaxial lip lobe; anthers coherent in pairs, 1-2 mm.   (6)
6 (5) Stems puberulent to glabrescent; petiole to 2 mm; leaf blade adaxially drying or wrinkled.   (7)
+ Stems densely spreading hispid, sometimes glabrescent; petiole 1-15 mm; leaf blade adaxially drying smooth.   (8)
7 (6) Leaf blade adaxially glabrous, base attenuate to broadly cuneate; cymes pseudoterminal; calyx 5-lobed from near or above middle, segments 2-2.5 mm; corolla inside with short, thick hairs near base, adaxial lip nearly erect; staminode ca. 1 mm; capsule 4.5-6 cm; seed appendages 6-10 mm   17 Aeschynanthus humilis
+ Leaf blade adaxially puberulent, glabrescent, base cuneate to rounded; cymes axillary; calyx 5-sect from base, segments ca. 4 mm; corolla inside glabrous, adaxial lip reflexed; staminode ca. 6.5 mm; capsule 9-12 cm; seed appendages 15-20 mm   20 Aeschynanthus gracilis
8 (6) Leaves mostly clustered near stem apex; petiole 1-4(-8) mm; leaf blade obovate to oblong obovate or elliptic, base attenuate to cuneate; cymes pseudoterminal, 2-5-flowered; calyx glabrous outside; corolla 1.7-2 cm, inside puberulent basally; capsule 6-8 cm   18 Aeschynanthus andersonii
+ Leaves in whorls of 3; petiole 10-15 mm; leaf blade narrowly ovate to ovate, base rounded; cymes axillary, 1-flowered; calyx sparsely puberulent outside; corolla ca. 2.9 cm, inside glabrous; capsule ca. 12 cm   19 Aeschynanthus mengxingensis
9 (4) Stems pubescent, sericeous, or glandular at least near branch apices.   (10)
+ Stems glabrous even when young.   (12)
10 (9) Leaf blade 0.7-2 cm, apex acute to rounded; stems glabrous, glandular near apex; leaves opposite or in whorls of 3; corolla mouth oblique, limb distinctly 2-lipped, adaxial lip ca. 1/2 X length of abaxial lip   21 Aeschynanthus buxifolius
+ Leaf blade 2.9-12.2 cm, apex attenuate to acute; stems pubescent or sericeous, often glabrescent; leaves opposite; corolla mouth not oblique, limb indistinctly 2-lipped, lips nearly equal.   (11)
11 (10) Stems rust-brown pubescent; petiole 2-3 mm; leaf blade linear to narrowly oblanceolate, 0.4-0.7 cm wide, base attenuate; peduncle 5.2-10 cm; calyx lobes 3.2-4.5 mm wide; corolla glabrous outside   8 Aeschynanthus angustissimus
+ Stems brown-sericeous, glabrescent; petiole 3.5-10 mm; leaf blade narrowly ovate to ovate or elliptic, 1.4-2.9 cm wide, base cuneate to rounded; peduncle absent; calyx lobes 0.6-2 mm wide; corolla pilose outside   15 Aeschynanthus lasianthus
12 (9) Calyx (3-)5-lobed, tube at least 2 mm.   (13)
+ Calyx 5-sect from base, without tube.   (22)
13 (12) Leaf blade 4-6.3 cm, abaxially sparsely punctate; calyx tube ca. 2 mm in diam. at mouth; ovary puberulent   10 Aeschynanthus lancilimbus
+ Leaf blade 5-23 cm, abaxially not punctate; calyx tube 3-8 mm in diam. at mouth; ovary glabrous.   (14)
14 (13) Calyx lobes 5-9 mm; leaf blade papery; lateral veins distinct   24 Aeschynanthus dolichanthus
+ Calyx lobes 1-5(-7) mm; leaf blade papery to thick leathery; lateral veins indistinct or invisible.   (15)
15 (14) Pedicels and outer calyx surface puberulent or glandular puberulent; calyx 4-7 mm.   (16)
+ Pedicels glabrous; calyx 9-15 mm.   (18)
16 (15) Leaf blade nearly linear to narrowly oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 0.8-2(-3) cm wide, base attenuate, adaxially drying wrinkled; stems ca. 100 cm   31 Aeschynanthus tengchungensis
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic or oblong to oblanceolate-oblong, 1.8-4.5 cm wide, base cuneate, adaxially drying smooth or nearly smooth; stems ca. 30 cm.   (17)
17 (16) Corolla ca. 5.8 cm; leaf blade 7-9 X 1.8-3.3 cm, papery to thin leathery; petiole 5-9 mm; pedicel ca. 12 mm; calyx ca. 7 mm, lobes 3.2-5 mm; style puberulent   25 Aeschynanthus lasiocalyx
+ Corolla ca. 3 cm; leaf blade 11-13 X 2.8-4.5 cm, thick leathery; petiole 9-15 mm; pedicel 4-5 mm; calyx ca. 4 mm, lobes 1.5-1.8 mm; style glabrous   26 Aeschynanthus medogensis
18 (15) Corolla 2-3 cm; calyx red-purple or tinged red-purple.   (19)
+ Corolla 4-5.5 cm; calyx green.   (20)
19 (18) Leaf blade 2.3-4 cm wide, base broadly cuneate, apex acuminate; bracts 5-9 mm   29 Aeschynanthus hookeri
+ Leaf blade 1-2.5 cm wide, base attenuate, apex caudate or caudate-acuminate; bracts ca. 3 mm   30 Aeschynanthus maculatus
20 (18) Calyx 9-10 mm; corolla abaxial lip ca. 1 cm, inside with subulate and triangular hairs basally; staminode ca. 0.5 mm; style ca. 3.2 cm; leaf blade papery to thin leathery; cymes 2-4-flowered   28 Aeschynanthus pachytrichus
+ Calyx 12-15 mm; corolla abaxial lip 5-6 mm, inside puberulent below middle or sparsely pubescent basally; staminode 5-6 mm; style 1-1.8 cm; leaf blade leathery; cymes 2-11-flowered.   (21)
21 (20) Leaf blade adaxial surface drying smooth; bracts deciduous; corolla mouth not oblique; anthers 1.2-2 mm; seeds with 1 hairlike appendage at hilar end   16 Aeschynanthus macranthus
+ Leaf blade adaxial surface drying wrinkled; bracts persistent; corolla mouth slightly oblique; anthers 3-4 mm; seeds with 2 hairlike appendages at hilar end   27 Aeschynanthus mimetes
22 (12) Leaf blade 10-20 X 4.4-10.5 cm; cymes 5-15-flowered; bracts persistent, 4-5.5 cm; calyx segments 2-3 cm; corolla 5.5-8.5 cm; capsule 32-52 cm   6 Aeschynanthus superbus
+ Leaf blade 1.7-13 X 0.6-6.1 cm; cymes 1-7-flowered; bracts deciduous or persistent, 0.2-3 cm; calyx segments 0.2-1.9 cm; corolla 1.5-4.2 cm; capsule 3-29 cm (unknown in A. planipetiolatus and A. angustioblongus).   (23)
23 (22) Bracts persistent, ovate to suborbicular; calyx segments ovate to ovate-oblong or obovate.   (24)
+ Bracts persistent or deciduous, linear to ovate; calyx segments linear to lanceolate, linear-oblanceolate, elliptic, or subulate.   (25)
24 (23) Leaves 1.4-3(-5) cm wide; peduncle 0.8-3 cm; bracts and calyx reddish, bracts 3-9 X 4-10 mm; corolla 1.5-2.2 cm; anthers 1.5-2 mm; style glabrous; capsule 6.5-16 cm   1 Aeschynanthus acuminatus
+ Leaves (1.8-)2.4-5.5 cm wide; peduncle (3.5-)7-14 cm; bracts and calyx green, bracts 6-10 X 4-5 mm; corolla 2.8-3 cm; anthers ca. 3 mm; style puberulent; capsule 12-29 cm   2 Aeschynanthus moningeriae
25 (23) Leaf blade to 3 cm; capsule 3-3.5 cm   11 Aeschynanthus tubulosus
+ Leaf blade 1.8-13 cm; capsule 5-26 cm (unknown in A. angustioblongus and A. planipetiolatus).   (26)
26 (25) Bracts persistent, rarely deciduous, red to purple, 10-30 mm; calyx red, 11-19 mm.   (27)
+ Bracts deciduous, rarely persistent, green, 2-13 mm; calyx green, sometimes tinged reddish or reddish, 3-11 mm.   (28)
27 (26) Leaf blade broadly lanceolate to elliptic, ovate, or obovate, 1.5-6.1 cm wide, base cuneate to rounded or subcordate; bracts lanceolate to ovate, 15-30 X 6-14 mm; corolla glabrous inside; ovary glandular puberulent   5 Aeschynanthus bracteatus
+ Leaf blade narrowly to broadly oblanceolate or rarely lanceolate, 0.6-2.5(-3.3) cm wide, base cuneate to attenuate; bracts lanceolate, 10-18 X 4-5(-8) mm; corolla inside sparsely glandular puberulent above; ovary glabrous   7 Aeschynanthus linearifolius
28 (26) Petiole 6-21 mm; leaf blade 5-12 cm; cymes 1-4-flowered.   (29)
+ Petiole 2-10 mm; leaf blade (1.8-)3-7.4 cm; cymes 1-3-flowered.   (30)
29 (28) Bracts lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 6-13 mm; calyx segments 7-9 mm, outside glabrous; corolla outside glabrous, inside sparsely glandular puberulent below abaxial lip; capsule 7-10 cm; seed appendages 1 at each end, 1.5-2 mm; peduncle absent to 0.5(-1) cm; leaf blade margin entire to shallowly crenulate   4 Aeschynanthus wardii
+ Bracts linear to lanceolate, ca. 6 mm; calyx segments 4-7 mm, outside glabrous to rust-brown pubescent; corolla outside sparsely puberulent, inside glabrous; capsule 15-25 cm; seed appendages 2 at hilar end, 8-12 mm, 1 at opposite end, 15-20 mm; peduncle absent; leaf blade margin entire   23 Aeschynanthus lineatus
30 (28) Pedicel 4-8 mm, sparsely puberulent; calyx outside puberulent to glabrous   14 Aeschynanthus austroyunnanensis
+ Pedicel 5-22 mm, glabrous; calyx glabrous outside.   (31)
31 (30) Pedicel 10-22 mm; leaf blade base attenuate, papery; corolla puberulent outside   13 Aeschynanthus angustioblongus
+ Pedicel 5-11 mm; leaf blade base cuneate to rounded, thick leathery to papery; corolla glabrous outside.   (32)
32 (31) Cymes 1-3-flowered; peduncle 2.2-5(-7) cm; corolla mouth slightly to strongly oblique; stems 60-100 cm   3 Aeschynanthus stenosepalus
+ Cymes 1-flowered; without peduncle; corolla mouth not oblique; stems to 30 cm.   (33)
33 (32) Petiole 3-4 mm; leaf blade 1.4-2.5 cm wide, thin leathery; calyx segments 7.5-10 mm; style glabrous   9 Aeschynanthus acuminatissimus
+ Petiole 5-10 mm; leaf blade 2-3.4 cm wide, thick leathery; calyx segments ca. 5 mm; style glandular puberulent   12 Aeschynanthus planipetiolatus

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