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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae

93. Alopecurus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 60. 1753.

看麦娘属 kan mai niang shu

Authors: Sheng-lian Lu & Sylvia M. Phillips

Annual or perennial. Leaf blades linear, flat; ligule membranous. Inflorescence a spikelike panicle, densely cylindrical, spikelets numerous, closely packed; pedicels very short, apices cuplike. Spikelets protogynous, strongly laterally compressed, floret 1, falling entire from pedicel; rachilla extension absent; glumes equal, ± equaling and enclosing floret, broadly lanceolate to oblong, membranous to thinly leathery, prominently 3-veined, strongly keeled, keel usually ciliate, infrequently winged, lower margins almost free or connate for up to half their length, apex obtuse, acute or shortly awned; lemma broadly lanceolate to ovate, usually thinly membranous, keeled, obscurely 5-veined, smooth, glabrous, lower margins often connate, awned from lower back, apex truncate to acute; awn straight when short or geniculate when longer, column smooth, usually twisted at maturity, bristle scabrid; palea absent or very small. Lodicules absent; ovary glabrous. Caryopsis obliquely obovate in side view; endosperm sometimes liquid.

Between 40 and 50 species:temperate and cold regions of the N hemisphere, South America; eight species in China.

1 Perennial; short or long creeping rhizomes present   (2)
+ Annual; rhizomes absent   (5)
2 (1) Panicle 1.5–4 cm, ovoid or shortly and broadly cylindrical; glumes densely and conspicuously hairy with 1.5–3 mm hairs   (3)
+ Panicle (3–)4–8 cm, cylindrical; glumes ciliate on keel, otherwise glabrous or shortly hairy on lateral veins   (4)
3 (2) Glume apex sharply acuminate to awnlike; lemma shorter than glumes.   1 A. himalaicus
+ Glume apex subacute; lemma subequal to glumes.   2 A. brachystachyus
4 (2) Glume apices divergent; awn usually included, arising near middle of lemma.   3 A. arundinaceus
+ Glume apices straight or slightly converging; awn long exserted, arising from lower 1/4 of lemma.   4 A. pratensis
5 (1) Spikelets 2–3 mm; anthers bright orange, 0.5–0.8 mm   (6)
+ Spikelets 4–6 mm; anthers pale yellow or white, 1–4 mm   (7)
6 (5) Awn 1.5–3.5 mm, included within spikelet or exserted up to 1.2 mm.   5 A. aequalis
+ Awn 6–10 mm, exserted 3 mm or more from spikelet.   6 A. longearistatus
7 (5) Glumes winged on keel; glume margins connate in lower 1/3–1/2; anthers 2.5–4 mm.   7 A. myosuroides
+ Glumes not winged on keel, ciliate; glume margins almost free; anthers ca. 1 mm.   8 A. japonicus

Lower Taxa


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