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182. Anaphalis Candolle, Prodr. 6: 271. 1838.

香青属 xiang qing shu

Authors: Shixin Zhu & Randall J. Bayer

Anaphalis bicolor

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, perennial, rarely annual or biennial, or subshrubs with somewhat woody rhizome. Stems erect or rosette-forming, simple or branching, densely white or ash-gray cottony tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate, rarely subopposite to opposite, sessile or petiolate or decurrent, oblong or lanceolate, entire. Capitula with many florets, 3-15 mm in diam., subglobose campanulate or subfunnelform, arranged in corymbiform or paniculate-corymbiform branched synflorescences, rarely solitary or 2 or 3 per synflorescence. Plants dioecious or heterogamous, having different types of florets: bisexual sterile florets with predominance of female florets arranged in many marginal rows and 1 to few central male florets, or many marginal rows of male florets and a few central female florets. Involucre campanulate, turbinate, or semispherical, base tomentose; phyllaries many seriate, imbricate, erect or expanding, scarious, lower parts brown, 1-veined, upper parts usually scarious, white or yellowish white or rarely pinkish. Receptacle subconvex or flat, alveolate, without squamules. Male florets: corolla tubular, 5-denticulate; stamens basally arrow-shaped with acerose tail; stigma with 2 short lobes, apex truncate. Female florets: corolla filiform, basally slightly dilated, 2-4-denticulate; style branches long, apex subrounded. Achene oblong or subrounded, with glandular hairs or mammilla or almost glabrous, in predominantly female capitula; achenes of male florets vestigial and usually absent in predominantly male capitula. Pappus in both florets consisting of 1 row of free deciduous white hairs, almost equal to corolla, scabrid, pinnate-incrassate at tip of apex in male florets, filiform and almost smooth or slightly scabrid at tip in female florets.

About 110 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical Asia, but a few species also in temperate Asia, Europe, and North America; 54 species (40 endemic) in China; one additional species (endemic, not included in the key) is of uncertain position.

Species incertae sedis

Anaphalis horaimontana Masamune, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 26: 57. 1936.

大山香青 da shan xiang qing

Stems unbranched, erect, ca. 10 cm, densely tomentose, base ca. 1 mm in diam., foliose, apex ascending corymbiform branched. Basal leaves rosulate, small, obovate, withered by anthesis, both surfaces gray tomentose; middle leaves spatulate, 12-14 × 3-3.5 mm, both surfaces densely tomentose, base attenuate, almost sheathlike, apex obtuse; upper leaves linear, 5-6 mm. Capitula 6, corymbiform, pedunculate. Involucre campanulate-globose, ca. 6 × 6 mm, base rounded, densely lanate; phyllaries imbricate, 6-seriate; outer phyllaries red-brown, ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate or obtuse; inner ones white, apex obtuse. Capitula with many marginal female florets, corolla filiform, ca. 3.5 mm; bisexual florets few, corolla tubular, ca. 3.5 mm, apex 5-denticulate. Pappus in female florets ca. 3.5 mm, in male florets ca. 3.7 mm, apex scabrid, not clavate. Ovary small, puberulent.

● Alpine grasslands. Taiwan.

Specimens of this species were not seen by the present authors. The above description is based on the original literature.

1 Involucre 8-12(-15) mm, spherical or broadly campanulate; capitula usually few, arranged in sparse to compound corymbiform synflorescences, or sometimes solitary   (2)
+ Involucre 4-8 mm, obovate, campanulate, or semispherical; phyllaries obtuse or rounded at apex, rarely acuminate, usually expanding after flowering; capitula usually numerous, rarely few, congested to compound corymbiform or corymbiform at apex of stems or branches   (11)
2 (1) Leaves not decurrent on stems; involucre spherical, capitula usually lax   (3)
+ Leaves somewhat decurrent and winglike on stems; capitula densely congested forming globose corymbs, or solitary   (6)
3 (2) Rhizome thickish; cauline middle leaves linear-lanceolate, cinereous or yellowish lanate; capitula congested, densely corymbiform.   54 A. acutifolia
+ Rhizome slender, sarmentose; cauline leaves oblong, oblanceolate, or spatulate; capitula usually lax corymbiform or solitary   (4)
4 (3) Phyllaries white or yellowish white, base reddish brown; both surfaces of leaves gray lanate; Taiwan.   53 A. nagasawae
+ Phyllaries white, base dark brown; leaves adaxially arachnoid, abaxially densely gray lanate   (5)
5 (4) Stems slender, lower parts 1-2 mm in diam.; leaf base not obviously amplexicaul, 3-veined, occasionally 1-veined; capitula few (or many) or solitary.   51 A. nepalensis
+ Stems thickish, lower parts up to 4 mm in diam.; leaves broad and large, base amplexicaul, 3- or 5-veined.   52 A. triplinervis
6 (2) Perennial herbs, rhizome slender; involucre broadly campanulate or semispherical, 8-11 mm   (7)
+ Small or pulvinate subshrubs; involucre spherical   (8)
7 (6) Phyllaries yellowish white, yellow, or sulfureous, rarely reddish; leaves gray or yellowish white arachnoid tomentose on both surfaces.   49 A. flavescens
+ Phyllaries white; leaves somewhat green, both surfaces with capitate glandular hairs and canescent arachnoid tomentum on margin.   50 A. hancockii
8 (6) Stems and both surfaces of leaves grayish, tangled-cottony, felty-papery tomentose.   45 A. chlamydophylla
+ Stems and both surfaces of leaves usually without above indumentum   (9)
9 (8) Stems and both surfaces of leaves yellowish brown long lanate; phyllaries wax-yellow or dark yellow; stems 6-20 cm.   46 A. pannosa
+ Stems and both surfaces of leaves yellowish or grayish white lanate; stems 3-8 cm or acaulescent   (10)
10 (9) Both surfaces of leaves yellowish green, grayish white, or yellowish white tomentose; phyllaries white or yellowish white, base brown.   48 A. viridis
+ Both surfaces of leaves cinereous or grayish white lanate; phyllaries white, base dark brown.   47 A. cinerascens
11 (1) Leaves not or scarcely decurrent on stems   (12)
+ Leaves decurrent to broadly or narrowly winged on stems   (21)
12 (11) Leaf base cordate or auriculate, semiamplexicaul, margin recurved, thin or submembranous   (13)
+ Leaf base attenuate, not obviously amplexicaul, margin flat or recurved, thick   (14)
13 (12) Plants tall, stems thickish, lower parts 2-4 mm in diam.; leaves large, 1.5-6 cm, arachnoid or glabrous adaxially.   8 A. contorta
+ Plants short, stems slender, lower parts ca. 1 mm in diam.; leaves 0.5-1.5 cm, lanate on both surfaces.   9 A. hondae
14 (12) Multibranched subshrubs, usually fastigiate; leaves narrowly linear, margin recurved, densely white tomentose on both surfaces.   10 A. virgata
+ Perennial herbs, or stem base woody, or subshrubs, unbranched or branched but not fastigiate; leaves not linear, margin flat or recurved   (15)
15 (14) Leaves gradually larger upward from middle, densely arranged to radiate under synflorescences, usually longer than compound corymb or corymb   (16)
+ Leaves gradually smaller upward from middle, not dense under synflorescences, upper ones shorter than compound corymb or corymb   (17)
16 (15) Upper leaves elliptic, apex acuminate; phyllaries white.   32 A. oxyphylla
+ Upper leaves oblong-lanceolate, apex acute; phyllaries purple-red or margin white.   33 A. porphyrolepis
17 (15) Stems gray tangled papery tomentose; leaves white cottony tomentose.   7 A. contortiformis
+ Stems gray tomentose; leaves arachnoid or later glabrous adaxially, densely gray to rufous tomentose abaxially, or both surfaces white tomentose   (18)
18 (17) Leaves densely white tomentose, 0.8-1 cm, margin recurved; middle phyllaries with longitudinal corrugation, apex rounded.   6 A. plicata
+ Leaves arachnoid or later glabrous adaxially, densely gray to rufous tomentose abaxially, 1.5-10 cm; middle phyllaries without longitudinal corrugation   (19)
19 (18) Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 5-10 cm, margin flat, base not decurrent on stems; phyllaries milky white, apex obtuse or rounded, rarely acuminate.   3 A. margaritacea
+ Leaves usually linear or linear-oblong, 1.5-3.5 cm, base slightly decurrent on stems; phyllaries snow white or yellowish white   (20)
20 (19) Involucre 5-7 mm, phyllaries snow white; Xizang.   4 A. royleana
+ Involucre ca. 5 mm, phyllaries yellowish white; Taiwan.   5 A. morrisonicola
21 (11) Stems, leaves, and involucre base with rust-colored stalked adhesive hairs; involucre obovate, phyllaries beige, membranous, translucent, not expanding.   1 A. bulleyana
+ Stems, leaves, and involucre base gray, white, or yellowish brown lanate, with squarrose or capitate-stalked glandular hairs, or arachnoid, or somewhat glabrous; involucre campanulate or semispherical, phyllaries white or reddish, usually scarious, opaque, rarely membranous, somewhat expanding   (22)
22 (21) Biennial herbs with thickish taproot.   2 A. busua
+ Perennial herbs with rhizome, or multibranched subshrubs or small subshrubs   (23)
23 (22) Both surfaces of leaves arachnoid at first, later glabrous except midvein and margin, without glandular hairs, dark green when dry; perennial herbs.   11 A. delavayi
+ Both surfaces of leaves or only abaxially tomentose, or both surfaces or adaxially with squarrose or capitate-stalked glandular hairs, or adaxially glabrous and green when dry; subshrubs or perennial herbs   (24)
24 (23) Subshrubs or small subshrubs, stems multibranched   (25)
+ Perennial herbs with rhizome, sometimes with taproot, stems unbranched or lower part woody and with developing axillary buds or short branches   (29)
25 (24) Involucre 6-8 mm, broadly campanulate; both surfaces of leaves arachnoid tomentose or adaxially glabrous   (26)
+ Involucre 4-5 mm, narrowly campanulate or campanulate, very rarely up to 6 mm in male plants; leaves tomentose or adaxially glandular or squarrose tomentose   (27)
26 (25) Phyllaries dark yellow or adaxially wax-yellow; leaves spatulate or oblong-spatulate, margin flat, both surfaces tomentose.   34 A. yunnanensis
+ Phyllaries white or pale reddish white; leaves obovate or ovate-oblong, adaxially arachnoid tomentose or glabrous, abaxially tomentose.   35 A. muliensis
27 (25) Leaves spatulate-obovate; phyllaries white or pale red.   36 A. suffruticosa
+ Leaves narrower, not spatulate-obovate; phyllaries white   (28)
28 (27) Leaves narrowly oblong or linear-oblong, both surfaces arachnoid tomentose or abaxially densely white or yellowish white tomentose.   37 A. stenocephala
+ Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, adaxially arachnoid or capitate glandular or squarrose tomentose, abaxially densely gray tomentose.   38 A. gracilis
29 (24) Phyllary claw with glandular dots at apex; both surfaces of leaves gray or yellowish white tomentose, or only with capitate-stalked glandular hairs.   12 A. latialata
+ Phyllary claw without glandular dots at apex   (30)
30 (29) Stem slender, 1-2 mm in diam., densely many clustered; leaves narrowly linear, margin undulate recurved.   29 A. tibetica
+ Stems slender or thickish, not densely many clustered; leaf margin flat or slightly reflexed or recurved and blade not narrowly linear   (31)
31 (30) Leaves adaxially at first arachnoid, later glabrous, without glandular hairs, or with appressed thick hairs, abaxially usually white tomentose   (32)
+ Leaves adaxially with lanate or squarrose or capitate-stalked glandular hairs, not glabrous   (34)
32 (31) Involucre 4-5 mm, campanulate; leaves 3-veined.   27 A. corymbifera
+ Involucre 6-8 mm, broadly or narrowly campanulate; leaves 1- or 3-veined   (33)
33 (32) Middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, 2-3 × 0.4-1 cm, margin usually reflexed or slightly recurved, obviously 3-veined.   15 A. likiangensis
+ Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly winged, 0.4-1.3 × 0.2-0.25 cm, margin flat, 1-veined.   16 A. tenuissima
34 (31) Phyllaries scarious at upper parts or apex, white, opaque, middle and lower parts membranous, somewhat transparent, apex obtuse or slightly acuminate   (35)
+ Phyllaries all scarious, opaque   (36)
35 (34) Leaves oblanceolate or linear-oblong, 2.5-4.5 × 0.5-2 cm; involucre 6-7 mm.   14 A. hymenolepis
+ Leaves linear-spatulate, 2.5-5 × 0.2-0.5 cm; involucre 4-5 mm.   26 A. flaccida
36 (34) Stems 50-100 cm, lower parts woody, persistent, usually with developing axillary buds or branches.   30 A. surculosa
+ Stems 3-50 cm, herbaceous, unbranched, rarely lower parts slightly woody, with developing axillary buds or branches   (37)
37 (36) Both surfaces of leaves tangled to cottony-papery tomentose; phyllaries wax-yellow when dry.   28 A. pachylaena
+ Both surfaces of leaves or abaxially white, gray, or yellowish white tomentose or arachnoid, or adaxially with squarrose or capitate-stalked glandular hairs   (38)
38 (37) Plants with thickish woody roots or rhizome; stems unbranched   (39)
+ Plants with long slender rhizome   (46)
39 (38) Both surfaces of leaves white, gray, or cinereous tomentose, without obvious capitate glandular hairs   (40)
+ Both surfaces of leaves with obvious capitate glandular hairs or arachnoid, or margin and abaxially or rosette leaves tomentose   (43)
40 (39) Involucre ca. 5 mm, phyllaries white, apex obtuse or subrounded.   43 A. szechuanensis
+ Involucre 6-8 mm, rarely only ca. 5 mm, phyllaries white, reddish, or red-purple   (41)
41 (40) Phyllaries purple-red or white, usually yellowish white when dry, inner ones with apex acute; leaves cinereous tomentose; flowering and sterile stems congested to pulvinate.   42 A. rhododactyla
+ Phyllaries milky white or somewhat red, apex obtuse or rounded; leaves densely white or gray tomentose; flowering stems and rosette leaves usually caespitose   (42)
42 (41) Involucre (5-)6(-7) × 5-7 mm; capitula numerous, densely compound corymbiform.   39 A. lactea
+ Involucre ca. 7 × 8 mm; capitula 4-8, densely corymbiform or headlike.   40 A. batangensis
43 (39) Leaves (dried) thin, yellowish green, cauline leaves with glandular hairs, only arachnoid along veins; phyllaries yellowish white, apex obtuse or rounded.   18 A. virens
+ Leaves thick, both surfaces with arachnoid and glandular hairs; phyllaries white or sometimes pale red   (44)
44 (43) Stems 3-7 cm, rarely taller; flowering stems and rosette leaves somewhat congested to pulvinate.   44 A. xylorhiza
+ Stems 15-50 cm, rarely shorter; flowering stems and rosette leaves somewhat clustered   (45)
45 (44) Lower stems woody, persistent; middle leaves elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, margin and midvein abaxially arachnoid tomentose; involucre 6-7 mm, phyllaries ivory white or somewhat reddish.   19 A. elegans
+ Stems herbaceous; middle leaves oblanceolate-oblong or linear, both surfaces arachnoid tomentose; involucre 5-7 mm, phyllaries white.   41 A. souliei
46 (38) Lower stem slightly woody, with tomentose axillary buds or short branches; leaves adaxially arachnoid, later glabrous, abaxially thinly arachnoid tomentose and glandular, upper leaves usually tomentose on both surfaces.   17 A. deserti
+ Stems unbranched, or sometimes branched from broken stems; leaves adaxially tomentose, or with squarrose or glandular hairs   (47)
47 (46) Involucre 6-8 mm; both surfaces of leaves gray, yellowish white, or rarely yellowish brown tomentose or lanate   (48)
+ Involucre 4-5 mm or to 6 mm; both surfaces of leaves or abaxially white or gray tomentose   (50)
48 (47) Both surfaces of leaves gray tomentose, or upper stems and leaves fulvous tomentose.   13 A. bicolor
+ Both surfaces of leaves yellowish white lanate or arachnoid lanate, 3-veined   (49)
49 (48) Leaves lingulate or linear-oblong, gradually smaller upward.   20 A. chungtienensis
+ Leaves oblanceolate, gradually larger upward.   31 A. larium
50 (47) Both surfaces of leaves dark cinereous, densely tomentose and with capitate glandular hairs   (51)
+ Leaves adaxially with squarrose or capitate glandular hairs, abaxially or both surfaces white or gray tomentose   (52)
51 (50) Leaves obovate or oblanceolate-spatulate; capitula numerous, congested in compound corymb.   22 A. spodiophylla
+ Leaves broadly elliptic or subrounded; capitula few, arranged in compound corymb.   23 A. yangii
52 (50) Involucre semispherical; stems 10-18 cm; Taiwan.   24 A. transnokoensis
+ Involucre campanulate or subobconic; stems 20-60 cm   (53)
53 (52) Involucre 4-5 mm, phyllaries white or sometimes pale red; stems densely leafy, internode 0.5-2 cm; leaves 1- or 3-veined.   21 A. sinica
+ Involucre 5-6 mm or more, phyllaries white or yellowish white; upper stems sparsely leafy, internode 4-10 cm; leaves 3- or 5-veined.   25 A. aureopunctata

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