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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19

16. Caprifoliaceae

忍冬科 ren dong ke

Authors: Qiner Yang, Sven Landrein, Joanna Osborne & Renata Borosova

Lonicera tangutica

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Shrubs or woody climbers, rarely small trees or herbs. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled, simple or pinnatifid, conduplicate or involute in vernation; interpetiolar stipules absent or rarely well developed. Inflorescence thyrsoid, axillary or terminal, compact or lax, cymes 1-, 2-, or 3-flowered; paired flowers sometimes with ovaries ± fused. Cymes with a pair of bracts and 2 pairs of bracteoles, located at base of ovaries, ± fused, occasionally accrescent in fruit, rarely absent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Calyx 4- or 5-lobed. Corolla epigynous, gamopetalous; lobes 4 or 5, spreading, sometimes bilabiate, aestivation imbricate. Stamens (4 or)5, didynamous, alternating with corolla lobes, sometimes exserted; anthers free, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits, introrse. Ovary inferior, carpels 2-8, fused; placenta axile; ovules 1 to many per locule, some of which can be abortive, pendulous; style solitary; stigmas capitate or lobed. Fruit a berry, a drupe with 2-5 pyrenes, or a leathery achene. Seeds 1 to many; embryo small, straight; endosperm copious.

Five genera and ca. 207 species: mostly in temperate regions of E Asia and E North America; five genera (one endemic) and 66 species (25 endemic) in China.

Following recent phylogenetic studies (Bell et al., Harvard Pap. Bot. 6(2): 481-499. 2001; Donoghue et al., Harvard Pap. Bot. 6(2): 459-479. 2001; W. H. Zhang et al., Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 26: 176-189. 2002), Caprifoliaceae is now thought to include Caprifolieae, Diervilleae, Linnaeeae, Morinaceae, Dipsacaceae, and Valerianaceae. However, Blacklund and Pyck (Taxon 47: 657-661. 1998) preferred to retain Caprifolieae as a distinct family and raise Linnaeeae and Diervilleae as new families, and this system is followed in the Flora of China.

Hsu Ping-sheng, Hu Jia-qi & Wang Han-jin. 1988. Caprifoliaceae (excluding Sambucus and Viburnum). In: Hsu Ping-sheng, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 72: 104-259.

Key to flowering material

1 Flowers single and opposite in a spike   (2)
+ Flowers paired (rarely single and then pedunculate; rarely in threes and then bracteoles fused into a cupule) or in whorls of 6   (3)
2 (1) Ovaries 5-, 7-, or 8-locular, all locules with many ovules.   4 Leycesteria
+ Ovaries 4-locular, 2 locules with 1 fertile ovule, other 2 locules with many sterile ovules.   3 Symphoricarpos
3 (1) Flowers paired (rarely single and then pedunculate; rarely in threes and then bracteoles fused into a cupule).   5 Lonicera
+ Flowers in whorls of 6   (4)
4 (3) Flowers 6 in a single whorl, with 2 pairs of tight involucral bracts forming a capitulum; capitula paniculate; shrubs with triplinerved leaves.   2 Heptacodium
+ Inflorescence different, if flowers in a capitulum then plant a climber with perfoliate involucral bracts and bilabiate flowers in 1-4 whorls   (5)
5 (4) Herbs; leaves pinnatifid, otherwise perfoliate.   1 Triosteum
+ Shrubs or climbers; leaves entire, not perfoliate (involucral bracts sometimes perfoliate)   (6)
6 (5) Shrubs; flowers funnelform.   4 Leycesteria
+ Climbers; flowers bilabiate.   5 Lonicera

List of Keys

Lower Taxa


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