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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Aristolochiaceae

4. Aristolochia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 960. 1753.

马兜铃属 ma dou ling shu

Hocquartia Dumortier; Isotrema Rafinesque.

Shrubs or herbs, rarely subshrubs or lianas, usually twining or climbing, rarely erect. Roots often tuberous. Stems woody or herbaceous. Leaves alternate, veins pinnate or palmately 3-7 from base, margin entire or 3-7-lobed. Flowers axillary, sometimes produced from old woody stems, solitary, fasciculate, or arranged in inflorescences. Perianth uniseriate, zygomorphic (in China). Calyx lobes fused; tube often enlarged at or near base to form a utricle, apically cylindric or funnel-shaped, rectilinear or curved; limb ligulate, discoid, or subpeltate; lobes 1-3 (less commonly to 6-dentate). Stamens 6 in 1 series, fully adnate to the style column to form gynostemium; filaments absent; anthers extrorse. Ovary inferior, 6-loculed, 6-angled; carpels fully connate; gynostemium 3- or 6-lobed. Fruit dry capsules, 6-valved, dehiscing from the apex (acropetally) or from the base (basipetally) [or rarely indehiscent]. Seeds flat or plano-convex, with or without wing, with fleshy funicle, persistent on seed as a membranous elaiosome.

About 400 species: widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the Old World, also in Australia; 45 species (33 endemic) in China.

Aristolochia jingiangensis H. Zhang & C. K. Hsieh (Acta Acad. Medic. Sichuan 15: 12. 1984) and A. faucimaculata H. Zhang & C. K. Hsien (loc. cit.: 13. 1984) are known to us by name only. Aristolochia blinii H. Léveillé, A. mairei H. Léveillé, A. viridiflora H. Léveillé, and A. viridiflora var. occlusa H. Léveillé are all Ceropegia mairei (H. Léveillé) H. Huber (Asclepiadaceae).

Wu Zhengyi (editor’s note) believes that species 1–29 should be transferred to the genus Isotrema.

Aristolochia macrocarpa C. Y. Wu & S. K. Wu ex D. D. Tao, Fl. Xizang. 1: 585. 1983 was missed in FOC vol. 5. Although it is a latter homonym, the name has been picked up and used in other regional floras, so future research will need to determine its placement.

1 Herbs twining; calyx tube rectilinear or slightly curved; utricle present; tube gradually dilated to funnelform apically; limb ligulate; gynostemium 6-lobed; anthers elliptic, opposite to lobes of gynostemium; capsule usually dehiscing acropetally.   (2)
+ Shrubs climbing, rarely shrubs erect or lianas; calyx tube horseshoe-shaped or geniculately curved at middle; limb often 2- or 3-lobed; gynostemium 3-lobed; anthers oblong, adnate in pairs opposite the gynostemium lobes; capsule usually dehiscing basipetally.   (18)
2 (1) Utricle stipitate, with short stipe connected to ovary.   (3)
+ Utricle sessile, directly attached to ovary.   (6)
3 (2) Leaf blade deeply 3-lobed.   42 A. polymorpha
+ Leaf blade entire or lobed.   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade glabrous on both surfaces, veins and veinlets sparsely reticulate.   43 A. tagala
+ Leaf blade densely puberulous or pubescent abaxially, at least along veinlets, veins and veinlets closely reticulate or foveolate-reticulate.   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, base auriculate, sinus 0.4-0.6 cm deep; seeds without wing.   44 A. impressinervis
+ Leaf blade triangular-ovate to rhombic-cordate, base shallowly cordate; seeds with wing.   45 A. zollingeriana
6 (2) Leaf blade abaxially densely puberulous, hairs along veins and veinlets forming closely foveolate reticulation.   (7)
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or pubescent, but without hairs along veins and veinlets.   (10)
7 (6) Racemes less than 3 cm or flowers almost fasciculate.   (8)
+ Racemes 3-6 cm.   (9)
8 (7) Leaf blade triangular-lanceolate to sagittate, base auriculate, lateral lobes parallel or spreading.   29 A. austrochinensis
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, base deeply cordate to auriculate, lateral lobes overlapping or slightly incurved.   30 A. foveolata
9 (7) Bracts and bractlets ovate, ca. 1.5 × 1 cm, base cordate and slightly amplexicaul.   31 A. chlamydophylla
+ Bracts and bractlets subulate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-10 × 1-4 mm, base rounded to cuneate.   32 A. fordiana
10 (6) Stems and leaves densely white or brownish villous.   33 A. fujianensis
+ Stems and leaves generally glabrous or glabrate (A. longganensis densely pubescent on abaxial leaf surface, otherwise glabrous).   (11)
11 (10) Calyx limb with long-tailed or long-acuminate apex.   (12)
+ Calyx limb with obtuse to acute apex (occasionally long acuminate in A. zhongdianensis).   (13)
12 (11) Leaf blade ovate-cordate or cordate to subrotund; seeds without wing.   34 A. longganensis
+ Leaf blade narrowly deltate to deltate-cordate; seeds with membranous wing.   35 A. contorta
13 (11) Leaves sessile or subsessile; stems pruinose, with condensed nodes.   37 A. delavayi
+ Leaves petiolate; stems green, with elongate internodes.   (14)
14 (13) Seeds obtusely deltoid, with membranous wing; capsule 4-6 cm in diam.   36 A. debilis
+ Seeds ovoid, without wing; capsule 1-2.5 cm in diam.   (15)
15 (14) Leaf blade 0.5-4 × 0.5-5 cm, rounded-cordate, triangular-cordate, or subreniform; petiole 1-4 cm; bractlets subulate.   (16)
+ Leaf blade 3-15 × 3-16 cm, cordate or ovate-cordate; petiole 2-10 cm; bractlets ovate.   (17)
16 (15) Leaf blade deltate-cordate, 0.5-3 × 0.5-2 cm, base auriculate.   38 A. zhongdianensis
+ Leaf blade cordate-reniform or rounded-cordate, 3-4 × 4-5 cm, base shallowly cordate.   39 A. gentilis
17 (15) Leaf blade densely punctate; petiole and branchlets with red juice when broken; roots linear or terete.   40 A. tubiflora
+ Leaf blade not punctate; petiole and branchlets without red juice; roots fusiform or globose.   41 A. tuberosa
18 (1) Calyx limb cylindric or saccate, 2-6-dentate or deeply 2- or 3-lobed.   (19)
+ Calyx limb discoid or obliquely trumpet-shaped, 3-lobed.   (24)
19 (18) Calyx limb saccate, asymmetric.   (20)
+ Calyx limb cylindric or subcylindric (sometimes slightly expanded apically), symmetric.   (21)
20 (19) Calyx limb ca. 6 × 1.5 cm; lobes lanceolate, ca. 25 × 10 mm.   23 A. forrestiana
+ Calyx limb 1-2 × 0.3-1.5 cm; lobes ovate-deltate, ca. 4 × 5 mm.   24 A. utriformis
21 (19) Shrubs erect; stems and branchlets with condensed nodes; calyx limb 5- or 6-dentate.   25 A. thwaitesii
+ Shrubs or herbs climbing; stems and branchlets with elongate internodes; calyx limb 2- or 3-lobed.   (22)
22 (21) Calyx limb indistinctly 2- or 3-lobed; lobes unequal.   26 A. transsecta
+ Calyx limb distinctly 3-lobed; lobes equal or slightly unequal.   (23)
23 (22) Leaf blade ovate, abaxially densely gray or yellow-brown villous; calyx lobes subrounded.   27 A. ovatifolia
+ Leaf blade trullate-lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or lanceolate, abaxially sparsely pubescent or glabrescent; calyx lobes lanceolate-acuminate.   28 A. cucurbitoides
24 (18) Calyx limb gradually dilated above, obliquely trumpet-shaped; lobes distinctly recurved, orifice larger than tube.   (25)
+ Calyx limb abruptly expanded, discoid, lobes plano-spreading, orifice distinctly smaller than tube.   (26)
25 (24) Leaf blade base cordate, abaxially densely white tomentose; calyx with purple veins and blotches, orifice nearly quadrate.   21 A. saccata
+ Leaf blade base rounded, abaxially villous to glabrescent, hairs brownish or yellowish; calyx without blotches, orifice nearly orbicular.   22 A. hainanensis
26 (24) Leaf blade polymorphic, margin deeply or shallowly lobed, rarely entire.   (27)
+ Leaf blade uniform, margin entire.   (31)
27 (26) Leaf blade deeply palmately 5-7-lobed.   1 A. cucurbitifolia
+ Leaf blade margin never as above.   (28)
28 (27) Calyx limb oblique, unilaterally 3-lobed, lobes ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate.   2 A. obliqua
+ Calyx limb not oblique, lobes broadly ovate or broadly deltate.   (29)
29 (28) Leaf blade pandurate or obovate-oblong, subrotund on old branches.   3 A. thibetica
+ Leaf blade never as above.   (30)
30 (29) Leaf blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate, obovate-oblong, or linear, margin entire or lobed near base, base cordate or auriculate, sinus over 0.5 cm wide.   4 A. kaempferi
+ Leaf blade broadly oblong-oblanceolate, linear, or oblong, margin entire or shallowly 2-3-lobed, base narrowly auriculate, sinus 0.3-0.5 cm wide.   5 A. howii
31 (26) Leaf blade generally as wide as long, cordate to orbicular (rarely ovate); veins palmate, basal veins 5-7.   (32)
+ Leaf blade longer than wide, ovate to narrowly ovate, elliptic, oblong, or lanceolate; veins pinnate, often 4-6 pairs.   (39)
32 (31) Leaf blade glabrous, base truncate.   6 A. caulialata
+ Leaf blade ± with hairs, base cordate or auriculate.   (33)
33 (32) Flowers large, limb 3.5-12 cm in diam.   (34)
+ Flowers small; calyx limb 2-3.5 cm in diam.   (36)
34 (33) Plants densely hirsute, hairs dusty yellow or brownish; calyx limb 3.5-4.5 cm in diam., dark purple, with spines, distinctly tuberculate.   7 A. kwangsiensis
+ Plants villous, hairs white or reddish brown; calyx limb 4-12 cm in diam., nearly smooth or sparsely papillate.   (35)
35 (34) Calyx tube horseshoe-shaped at middle; limb 4-6 cm in diam.; seeds deltoid-cordiform or cordiform, 6-7 × 6-7 mm, both surfaces slightly plano-convex, verrucose.   8 A. manshuriensis
+ Calyx tube geniculately curved at middle; limb 6-12 cm in diam.; seeds ovoid, ca. 4 × 3 mm, upper surface plano-convex, lower deeply concave, with a septumlike funiculus at center, rugose or smooth.   9 A. griffithii
36 (33) Leaf blade abaxially densely tomentose, hairs white or gray.   10 A. mollissima
+ Leaf blade abaxially sparsely to densely villous, hairs yellowish.   (37)
37 (36) Calyx limb oblique, unilaterally 3-lobed, lobes ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate.   2 A. obliqua
+ Calyx limb not oblique, discoid or rounded, lobes rounded.   (38)
38 (37) Leaf blade ovate to ovate-cordate, 5-12 cm wide, base deeply cordate or auriculate, sinus 1-2.5 cm deep; bractlets ovate, ca. 1.5 × 1 cm.   11 A. moupinensis
+ Leaf blade ovate to narrowly ovate, 4-8 cm wide, base shallowly cordate, sinus ca. 1 cm deep; bractlets subulate, 5-8 × 2-3 mm.   12 A. kunmingensis
39 (31) Leaf blade base cordate or auriculate (sometimes narrowly so).   (40)
+ Leaf blade base rounded to shallowly cordate.   (43)
40 (39) Flowers small; calyx limb 2-2.5 cm in diam.   (41)
+ Flowers large; calyx limb 4-13 cm.   (42)
41 (40) Racemes 3-5-flowered, cauliflorous; leaf blade base cordate, sinus 1-2 × 1-2 cm.   13 A. scytophylla
+ Flowers solitary or paired, axillary; leaf blade base narrowly auriculate, sinus 0.5-1.5 × 0.2-0.4 cm.   14 A. fulvicoma
42 (40) Calyx limb 8-13 cm in diam.   15 A. westlandii
+ Calyx limb 4-6 cm in diam.   16 A. versicolor
43 (39) Calyx limb adaxially papillate; leaf blade lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate.   (44)
+ Calyx limb adaxially smooth; leaf blade oblong, ovate-oblong, or ovate, rarely ovate-lanceolate.   (45)
44 (43) Calyx tube upper part abruptly dilated into limb, margin not revolute.   17 A. championii
+ Calyx tube upper part gradually dilated into limb, margin revolute.   18 A. bambusifolia
45 (43) Calyx tube horseshoe-shaped curved at middle; leaf blade base rounded.   19 A. fangchi
+ Calyx tube geniculately curved at middle; leaf blade base shallowly cordate.   20 A. petelotii

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