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191. Blumea Candolle, Arch. Bot. (Paris). 2: 514. 1833.

艾纳香属 ai na xiang shu

Blumeopsis Gagnepain.

Herbs or shrubs. Stems not winged, with resin canals. Leaves alternate, simple, sessile or shortly petiolate, mucronate-toothed to laciniate or sometimes pinnately lobed. Capitula heterogamous, disciform, solitary or paniculate. Involucre campanulate-globose; phyllaries numerous, imbricate or reflexed, in 4 or 5 series, outer series shortest. Receptacle epaleate, with scalelike ridges. Marginal florets female, in several rows; corolla yellow, filiform, minutely 2- or 3-toothed. Disk florets bisexual; corollas often yellow, rarely white to purplish, tubular, 5-toothed. Anthers ecalcarate, tailed; tails connate, caudate-acuminate; endothecial tissue radial or polarized. Pollen spines with a cavity. Style branches with acute sweeping hairs, not reaching furcation. Achenes cylindric, hirsute, terete or obscurely 4-angular or 5- or 10-ribbed, shorter than corolla; epidermis with elongated crystals. Pappus of barbellate, capillary bristles in 1 row, white to reddish. x = 8, 9, 10, 11.

About 50 species: Africa, tropical Asia, Australia, Pacific islands; 30 species (five endemic) in China.

Blumeopsis is treated here as a synonym of Blumea. It is a derived ingroup in this large genus and should be included therein; see Pornpongrungrueng et al. (Pl. Syst. Evol. 269: 223-243. 2007).

The name Blumea gomphrena (Walpers) Schultz-Bipontinus ex Handel-Mazzetti (Oesterr. Bot. Z. 88: 310. 1939), based on Vernonia gomphrena Walpers (Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 253. 1843), is of uncertain application. The only known specimen associated with the name, the type, collected by Meyen from an island ("Lintin") near Guangzhou, was probably destroyed in the Berlin herbarium fire of 1943. The protologue describes a pubescent annual with amplexicaul leaves, cymes with few capitula, and lanceolate phyllaries, but it is completely lacking in useful information on floral morphology including microcharacters. A specimen at GH comprises a drawing of the type together with two fragments (leaves and immature capitula) of the type. Merrill (J. Arnold Arbor. 18: 75. 1937), who saw this material, treated V. gomphrena as a synonym of B. obliqua (Linnaeus) Druce, a species not otherwise recorded from China. Certainly the material resembles a Blumea, but examination of the microcharacters of the capitula are needed to confirm its identity. In particular, the shape of the style sweeping hairs, the endothecial tissue thickenings, the shape and size of the anther thecae (calcarate, tailed, etc.), and the pollen morphology could be informative.

1 Anthers with sagittate or obtuse bases, without tails.   1 B. flava
+ Anthers tailed   (2)
2 (1) Outer phyllaries ovate or ovate-oblong; receptacle densely pilose; pappus white   (3)
+ Outer phyllaries linear to linear-lanceolate (or if ovate-lanceolate then pappus not white); receptacle glabrous; pappus white, reddish brown, yellowish brown, or yellow   (5)
3 (2) Erect herbs; old leaves abaxially densely pubescent or tomentose, margin biserrate.   2 B. repanda
+ Climbers; old leaves abaxially very sparsely pubescent or glabrescent, margin regularly and sparsely serrate   (4)
4 (3) Capitula 12-13 mm in diam., usually 1-7 axillary or in sparse terminal panicles; involucre hemispheric; receptacle 6-11 mm in diam.   3 B. megacephala
+ Capitula 5-8 mm in diam., usually axillary or in dense terminal panicles; involucre campanulate; receptacle 2-3 mm in diam.   4 B. riparia
5 (2) Pappus reddish brown, yellowish brown, or yellow   (6)
+ Pappus white   (14)
6 (5) Leaf blade sagittate at base; marginal florets bilabiate at apex.   5 B. sagittata
+ Leaf blade rounded or acute at base; marginal florets equally 2-4-lobed at apex   (7)
7 (6) Leaf blade pinnatisect.   6 B. hookeri
+ Leaf blade margin serrate, rarely deeply dentate   (8)
8 (7) Leaf blade linear.   7 B. linearis
+ Leaf blade oblong   (9)
9 (8) Stems, leaves, and peduncles densely white lanate.   8 B. martiniana
+ Stems, leaves, and peduncles pubescent or tomentose   (10)
10 (9) Outer phyllaries ovate-lanceolate.   9 B. lanceolaria
+ Outer phyllaries oblong, linear, or linear-lanceolate   (11)
11 (10) Leaf base usually with 1-5 pairs of appendages.   10 B. balsamifera
+ Leaf base without appendages   (12)
12 (11) Leaf base acuminate, margin serrulate.   11 B. formosana
+ Leaf base acute, margin coarsely dentate   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blade 20-30 × 6-12 cm; capitula 8-15 mm in diam.   12 B. aromatica
+ Leaf blade 30-45 × 10-15 cm; capitula 4-5 mm in diam.   13 B. conspicua
14 (5) Capitula few, in axillary or terminal small and compact racemes; leaf blade linear-lanceolate.   14 B. tenuifolia
+ Capitula in large and sparse panicles or dense spikes; leaf blade much broader   (15)
15 (14) Plants prostrate; leaves spinose-toothed.   15 B. oxyodonta
+ Plants erect; leaves not spinose-toothed   (16)
16 (15) Leaf blade lyrately lobed or pinnatisect   (17)
+ Leaf blade unlobed, margin dentate, serrate, or biserrate   (23)
17 (16) Leaves abaxially white lanate, adaxially tomentose.   16 B. lacera
+ Leaves pubescent or subglabrous   (18)
18 (17) Capitula in spiciform panicle; phyllaries not reflexed after anthesis.   17 B. sessiliflora
+ Capitula in sparse or dense panicle, peduncles obvious; phyllaries reflexed after anthesis   (19)
19 (18) Receptacle 4-5 mm in diam., pilose; phyllary apex purplish red   (20)
+ Receptacle 2-3 mm in diam., glabrous; phyllary apex green   (21)
20 (19) Leaf blade pinnatisect, base amplexicaul; achenes 6-ribbed.   18 B. saussureoides
+ Leaf blade lyrately lobed, base narrow; achenes 10-ribbed.   19 B. sinuata
21 (19) Stems, peduncles, and phyllaries glabrous or sparsely pubescent, without glands.   20 B. virens
+ Stems, peduncles, and phyllaries pubescent and glandular   (22)
22 (21) Leaf blade upper lobe orbicular, apex rounded; capitula pedunculate, in sparse panicle.   21 B. napifolia
+ Leaf blade upper lobe ovate-oblong or elliptic, apex acute; capitula subsessile, in dense panicle.   22 B. membranacea
23 (16) Receptacle pilose   (24)
+ Receptacle glabrous   (27)
24 (23) Capitula 8-12 mm in diam   (25)
+ Capitula 3-6 mm in diam   (26)
25 (24) Leaf blade margin regularly serrate; capitula sessile or with 0.5-1(-2) cm long peduncles, in dense panicles; innermost phyllaries ca. 1 mm wide, apex acute.   23 B. clarkei
+ Leaf blade margin biserrate; capitula with up to 2 cm long peduncles, in sparse panicles; innermost phyllaries ca. 0.5 mm wide, apex caudate-acuminate.   24 B. oblongifolia
26 (24) Stems green, long pilose, glandular; blade oblong or oblong- lanceolate, glandular; capitula few, in short and dense panicles.   25 B. adenophora
+ Stems purplish red, pubescent or tomentose, without glands; blade obovate to oblanceolate; capitula many, sessile, in spikelike panicles.   26 B. fistulosa
27 (23) Achenes not ribbed   (28)
+ Achenes distinctly ribbed   (29)
28 (27) Florets purplish red.   27 B. axillaris
+ Florets yellow.   16 B. lacera
29 (27) Leaves abaxially whitish sericeous or lanate   (30)
+ Leaves abaxially glabrous   (31)
30 (29) Leaves mainly cauline, elliptic, margin denticulate; phyllary apex purplish red.   28 B. hieraciifolia
+ Leaves mainly basal, obovate-spatulate or obovate-oblong, margin serrate or biserrate; phyllaries green or yellowish.   29 B. sericans
31 (29) Leaves mainly basal, subsessile, cauline leaves 4-6; capitula few, in globose panicles; phyllaries and corollas purplish red.   30 B. veronicifolia
+ Leaves mainly cauline, with 2.5-3.5 cm long petioles; capitula many, in sparse panicles; phyllaries green; corollas yellow.   21 B. napifolia

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