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16. Malpighiaceae

金虎尾科 jin hu wei ke

Authors: Shu-kun Chen & Michele Funston

Shrubs, small trees, or woody lianas, pubescence a mix of medifixed (T-shaped) and simple hairs, monoecious or andro-dioecious. Leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate or 3-whorled, petiolate, simple, entire, glands often present either on petiole or on lower surface of leaves; stipules free and deciduous, or connate and ± persistent, sometimes reduced or absent. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose, corymbose or umbellate, solitary or in panicles; pedicels articulate, 2-bracteolate at point of attachment. Flowers bisexual or staminate (in Ryssopterys), actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Sepals 5, polysepalous or gamosepalous, imbricate, rarely valvate, one or more large glandular at bases of outside members, rarely eglandular. Petals 5, typically clawed, margin ciliate, dentate or fimbriate. Disk inconspicuous. Stamens 10, obdiplostemonous, sometimes diadelphous with one stamen distinctly larger than others; filaments usually connate at base; anthers introrse, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 3-locular, placenta axile, 1-ovuled, pendulous and semianatropous in each locule; styles 3, or connate into 1, persistent. Fruit a schizocarp, carpels 3 or fewer, 1 seed per carpel; schizocarp splitting into winged samaras, indehiscent. Seed embryo large, erect or rarely curved; endosperm lacking.

About 65 genera and ca. 1280 species: tropical and subtropical regions, mainly American; four genera and 21 species (12 endemic) in China.

Two cultivated species were described in FRPS (43(3): 129. 1997): Malpighia coccigera Linnaeus, grown in Guangdong and Hainan, and Thyrallis gracilis Kuntze, grown in Guangdong and Yunnan (Xishuangbanna).

Chen Shukun & Chen Pangyu. 1997. Malpighiaceae. In: Chen Shukun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 43(3): 105-131.


1 Plants androdioecious; flowers bisexual or staminate; petals weakly clawed; only abaxial wing of fruit developing.   4 Ryssopterys
+ Plants monoecious; flowers bisexual; petals clawed or not clawed; lateral and abaxial wings of fruit well developed, rarely abaxial wing underdeveloped as protrusions   (2)
       
2 (1) Stipules connate with petiole base; samaras stellately winged, wings 3 or more.   3 Tristellateia
+ Stipules free, inserted on twig between petioles, sometimes reduced or absent; samaras not stellately winged, wings 1-3   (3)
       
3 (2) Flowers zygomorphic; petals clawed; style 1; samaras with 1 long abaxial wing and 2 shorter lateral wings.   2 Hiptage
+ Flowers actinomorphic; petals not clawed; styles 3; samaras with lateral wings connate forming a disklike wing, abaxial wing developing or not.   1 Aspidopterys

Lower Taxa


 

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