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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 7 | Lauraceae

10. Cinnamomum Schaeffer, Bot. Exped. 74. 1760.

樟属 zhang shu

Authors: Xi-wen Li, Jie Li & Henk van der Werff

Camphora Fabricius; Cecidodaphne Nees; Parthenoxylon Blume.

Evergreen trees or shrubs. Bark, branchlets, and leaves very scented. Buds naked or perulate; if perulate, scales distinct or indistinct, imbricate. Leaves alternate, subopposite, or opposite, sometimes clustered at apex of branchlet, leathery, trinerved or triplinerved, also pinninerved. Panicle axillary, subterminal, or terminal, composed of (1-)3- to many-flowered cymes. Flowers yellow or white, small- to medium-sized, bisexual, rarely polygamous. Perianth tube short, cupuliform or campanulate; perianth lobes 6, subequal, entirely deciduous or upper halves deciduous but rarely entirely persistent after anthesis. Fertile stamens 9, rarely less or more, in 3 whorls; filaments of 1st and 2nd whorls eglandular, those of 3rd whorl each with 2 stalked or stalkless glands near base; anthers 4-celled, rarely those of 3rd whorl 2-celled, cells introrse (of 1st and 2nd whorls) or extrorse (of 3rd whorl). Staminodes 3, of innermost whorl, cordate or sagittate, stipitate. Ovary always as long as style; style slender; stigma capitate or discoid, sometimes 3-lobed. Fruit fleshy, subtended by a perianth cup; perianth cup cupuliform, campanulate, or conical, truncate or undulate, irregularly denticulate or sometimes with 6 truncate lobe bases at apex.

About 250 species: tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia, and Pacific islands; 49 species (30 endemic, one introduced) in China.

Cinnamomum sericans Hance (J. Bot. 15: 336. 1877) was described from China but could not be treated here because no material was seen by the present authors.

In addition, numerous names in Cinnamomum and Camphora based on Chinese material were published by Lukmanoff (Nomencl. Icon. Cannel. 1889). They are listed below. Type material needs to be located and identified in order to determine the correct application of these names.

Camphora: C. brongniartii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 23; China and Japan); C. decandollei Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 23; China: Hong Kong); C. oldhamii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 23; China: Taiwan); and C. wrightii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 24; China: Hong Kong).

Cinnamomum: C. asa-grayi Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 9; China: Hong Kong); C. baillonii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 10; China); C. barlowii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 16; China); C. calleryi Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 16; China); C. goeringii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 16; China and Indonesia: Java); C. linnei Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 15; China); C. lowii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 15; China); C. lucienii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 18; China and Japan); C. lunatum Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 11; China); C. maximoviczii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 19; China); C. reinwardtii Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 19; China); C. rougieri Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 7; China and ?Myanmar); C. suaveolens Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 9; China); and C. walteri Lukmanoff (loc. cit.: 18; China).

Cinnamomum esquirolii H. Léveillé (Fl. Kouy-Tchéou, 218. 1914-1915) is a synonym of Cocculus laurifolius Candolle in the Menispermaceae (see p. 13).


1 Perianth lobes entirely deciduous when in fruit; bud scales distinct, imbricate; leaves alternate, pinninerved or subtriplinerved, rarely trinerved, axils of lateral veins usually dome-shaped abaxially, ± conspicuously bullate adaxially   (2)
+ Perianth lobes entirely persistent or lower parts persistent when in fruit; buds naked or bud scales indistinct; leaves opposite or subopposite, trinerved or triplinerved, axils of lateral veins not dome-shaped abaxially and not bullate adaxially   (20)
       
2 (1) Leaf blade conspicuously hairy on both surfaces or only abaxially when mature (except C. philippinense glabrate abaxially)   (3)
+ Leaf blade glabrous or subglabrous on both surfaces when mature   (10)
       
3 (2) Leaf apex caudate-acuminate or abruptly acuminate   (4)
+ Leaf apex not caudate-acuminate or abruptly acuminate   (5)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade ovate or ovate-oblong, densely villous along midrib adaxially and on whole surface abaxially when young, glabrous adaxially and grayish brown villous abaxially when mature, lateral veins 6-8 pairs; perianth lobes glabrous outside and inside; fruit ovoid, ca. 1 cm in diam..   1 C. foveolatum
+ Leaf blade ovate-elliptic or lanceolate, glabrous adaxially, pubescent initially but soon glabrate abaxially, lateral veins 5 or 6(or 7) pairs; perianth lobes appressed pubescent outside, hirsute inside; fruit globose, ca. 7 mm in diam..   2 C. philippinense
       
5 (3) Panicle glabrous or subglabrous   (6)
+ Panicle densely hairy   (7)
       
6 (5) Leaf blade sparsely villous initially but very soon glabrate adaxially, very densely yellow villous initially but soon sparsely so abaxially, midrib and lateral veins impressed adaxially, elevated abaxially, axils of lateral veins inconspicuously dome-shaped abaxially; panicle 7-11 cm, 12-16-flowered, peduncle, rachis, and pedicels sparsely villous initially but soon glabrate; perianth densely puberulent outside and inside.   7 C. mollifolium
+ Leaf blade finely puberulent initially but soon glabrate adaxially, very densely sericeous-puberulent abaxially, midrib and lateral veins slightly conspicuous on both surfaces, axils of lateral veins conspicuously dome-shaped abaxially; panicle (5-)10-15 cm, many flowered, peduncle and rachis glabrous, pedicels sericeous-puberulent; perianth subglabrous outside, white sericeous inside.   8 C. bodinieri
       
7 (5) Buds densely red-brown or gray tomentose   (8)
+ Panicle densely grayish brown to yellowish brown pubescent or white sericeous   (9)
       
8 (7) Buds, young branchlets, leaf blade abaxially, and inflorescences densely gray tomentose; axils of lateral veins in leaves inconspicuously bullate adaxially.   3 C. tenuipile
+ Buds, young branchlets, leaf blade abaxially, and inflorescences densely reddish brown tomentose; axils of lateral veins in leaves conspicuously bullate adaxially.   4 C. rufotomentosum
       
9 (7) Branchlets, leaf blade abaxially, and inflorescences densely gray-brown to yellowish brown pubescent; veinlets of leaf blade nearly invisible abaxially, axils of lateral veins inconspicuously dome-shaped abaxially; fruit covered with gray-brown or yellowish brown villous hairs.   5 C. platyphyllum
+ Branchlets, leaf blade abaxially, and inflorescences densely white sericeous; veins of leaf blade ± conspicuously visible and somewhat foveolate abaxially, axils of lateral veins shallowly dome-shaped abaxially; fruit glabrous.   6 C. septentrionale
       
10 (2) Panicle ± hairy   (11)
+ Panicle glabrous or subglabrous   (14)
       
11 (10) Perianth cup crateriform, dilated into a disk; fruit globose.   9 C. migao
+ Perianth cup shallowly cupuliform or campanulate; fruit obovoid or ovoid but not globose   (12)
       
12 (11) Leaf blade lateral veins 3-5 pairs, axils always conspicuously dome-shaped abaxially; fruit obovoid, ca. 2 cm; perianth cup campanulate, 1.2-1.8 cm.   10 C. illicioides
+ Leaf blade lateral veins 5-7 pairs, axils always inconspicuously dome-shaped abaxially; fruit ovoid, 1.5-2 cm; perianth cup shallowly cupuliform, 0.5-1.5 cm   (13)
       
13 (12) Leaf blade oblong, sometimes ovate-oblong, 5-13 × 2-5 cm, petiole 0.5-1.5 cm; fruit ca. 1.5 × 0.9 cm, perianth cup ca. 0.5 cm and ca. 0.65 cm wide at apex.   11 C. saxatile
+ Leaf blade ovate, 7-12.5 × 2.8-7.8 cm, petiole 2-4 cm; fruit ca. 2 × 1.7 cm, perianth cup ca. 1.5 cm long and broad.   12 C. longipetiolatum
       
14 (10) Panicles terminal, subterminal, or sometimes axillary, very short, (2-)3-5 cm, few flowered   (15)
+ Panicles axillary or axillary and terminal, ± elongate, ca. 5 cm or more, many flowered   (16)
       
15 (14) Leaf blade oblong-elliptic or ovate-elliptic, large, 7.5-9.5(-10) × 4-5(-6) cm, glabrous abaxially, axils of lateral veins dome-shaped and puberulent abaxially; perianth cup in fruit urceolate, 9-10 mm wide at apex, fruit ellipsoid, 1.5-2 cm in diam..   13 C. micranthum
+ Leaf blade elliptic, smaller, 5-9 × 2-4 cm, white sericeous abaxially, axils of lateral veins not dome-shaped and glabrous; perianth cup in fruit dilated, crateriform, up to 1.3 cm wide at apex, fruit globose, 1-1.5 cm in diam..   14 C. brachythyrsum
       
16 (14) Leaf blade ovate-elliptic, always glaucous abaxially when dry, triplinerved, axils of lateral veins and veins conspicuously dome-shaped abaxially.   15 C. camphora
+ Leaf blade variable in shape, not or inconspicuously glaucous abaxially when dry, generally pinninerved, axils of lateral veins conspicuously or inconspicuously dome-shaped abaxially, veins not dome-shaped abaxially   (17)
       
17 (16) Panicle generally many flowered, 9-20 cm; leaf blade mostly ovate, apex always falcate.   16 C. longepaniculatum
+ Panicle rather few flowered and rather short, 4-10 cm; leaf blade variable in shape, generally elliptic-ovate or oblong-ovate   (18)
       
18 (17) Leaf blade lateral vein axils inconspicuously dome-shaped abaxially and also inconspicuously bullate adaxially.   17 C. parthenoxylon
+ Leaf blade lateral vein axils conspicuously dome-shaped abaxially and also conspicuously bullate adaxially   (19)
       
19 (18) Leaf blade leathery, dark green and shiny adaxially, axils of lateral veins only with 1 dome abaxially.   18 C. glanduliferum
+ Leaf blade papery, green and reddish brownish adaxially, axils of lateral veins with 1 or 2 domes abaxially.   19 C. chartophyllum
       
20 (1) Leaf blade conspicuously hairy on both surfaces but especially so abaxially when young, not sparsely hairy or very rarely glabrate on adaxial surface and when mature abaxially   (21)
+ Leaf blade glabrous or sparsely hairy on both surfaces but especially so abaxially when young, glabrous or glabrate on both surfaces when old   (34)
       
21 (20) Two lower anther cells lateral; ovary hirsute; fruit ovoid, up to 2.5 cm, apiculate at apex, glabrous except apex slightly villous, exocarp scabrid; inflorescence inserted in leaf axils near apex of young branchlet, always many, clustered and approximate to each other, nearly sessile or shortly pedunculate.   37 C. pittosporoides
+ Two lower anther cells not lateral; ovary glabrous, if hairy not hirsute; fruit smaller, usually below 1 cm, not distinctly apiculate at apex, glabrous; panicles terminal or axillary, usually remote from each other, distinctly long pedunculate   (22)
       
22 (21) Basal lateral veins with 4-6 additional veins outside, additional veins slightly impressed adaxially and very elevated abaxially.   35 C. pingbienense
+ Basal lateral veins usually without additional veins outside, if present veins not conspicuous   (23)
       
23 (22) Young branchlets, inflorescence, leaf blade abaxially, and petioles covered with fine villous black-chestnut or red-brown hairs.   38 C. kwangtungense
+ Young branchlets, inflorescence, leaf blade abaxially, and petioles covered with dirty yellow, yellow-brown, rusty, or gray to silver hairs   (24)
       
24 (23) Plant indumentum dirty yellow, yellow-brown, or rusty pubescent, or tomentose or villous   (25)
+ Plant indumentum gray to silver villous, puberulent, or sericeous   (28)
       
25 (24) Leaf blade leathery, elliptic, ovate-elliptic to lanceolate, smaller, old leaves usually below 10 × 5 cm.   49 C. subavenium
+ Leaf blade leathery to thickly leathery, elliptic-ovate or oblong, larger, old leaves above 10 × 5 cm   (26)
       
26 (25) Leaf blade transverse veins inconspicuous abaxially.   47 C. cassia
+ Leaf blade transverse veins parallel and conspicuously elevated abaxially   (27)
       
27 (26) Leaf blade elliptic or elliptic-ovate, 11-22 × 5-6.5 cm, subtriplinerved, apex caudate, base subrounded; panicle 10-15 cm; panicles, leaf blade abaxially, and petioles densely yellow-brown tomentose.   45 C. javanicum
+ Leaf blade elliptic, 4.5-11 × 1.5-4 cm, triplinerved, apex abruptly shortly acuminate, base cuneate to subrounded; panicle 4-6.5 cm; panicles, leaf blade abaxially, and petioles dirty yellow hirsute-villous.   46 C. appelianum
       
28 (24) Pedicels filiform, 6-20 mm.   39 C. wilsonii
+ Pedicels shorter, all below 6 mm   (29)
       
29 (28) Perianth lobes in fruit persistent; leaf blade large, 12-35 × 5.5-8.5 cm.   41 C. iners
+ Perianth lobes in fruit ± deciduous; leaf blade smaller   (30)
       
30 (29) Leaf blade ovate to broadly ovate, glabrous adaxially, distinctly white sericeous when young but eventually glabrate when mature abaxially.   40 C. contractum
+ Leaf blade not ovate or broadly ovate, pubescence mostly not deciduous when mature abaxially   (31)
       
31 (30) Panicles axillary and terminal, several branched from base, branches elongate, inflorescence rachis ± depressed tetragonous; leaf blade oblong to lanceolate- oblong.   42 C. austroyunnanense
+ Panicle axillary only, pedunculate, peduncle long or slender, inflorescence rachis not depressed tetragonous; leaf blade lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic, generally broader and shorter   (32)
       
32 (31) Leaf blade elliptic, old ones 14-16 × 6-7.5 cm, twice as long as young ones; panicle elongate, 9-13 cm, branched three times, very patent; panicle and leaf blade abaxially appressed short gray villous.   48 C. austrosinense
+ Leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, below 11 × 4 cm; panicle shorter, below 9 cm, branched twice, not very patent; panicle and leaf blade abaxially brownish or silver sericeous or sericeous-tomentulose   (33)
       
33 (32) Leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 5-10 × 1.5-2.5 cm, silver sericeous on both surfaces when young, glabrous adaxially and brownish sericeous abaxially or glabrate on both surfaces when mature, apex distinctly falcate-acuminate, petiole 0.5-1.2 cm, densely silver sericeous when young; inflorescences cymose, ca. 3 cm, solitary or in cluster, 3-5-flowered, silver sericeous; flowers green-white, 3-4 mm, pedicels ca. 5 mm.   43 C. tsangii
+ Leaf blade lanceolate, 6-11 × 2.5-4 cm, green and glabrous adaxially, glaucous and densely silver appressed tomentulose when young but glabrate when mature abaxially, apex acuminate, petiole 1-1.5 cm, glabrous; inflorescences paniculate, 4-7(-9) cm, solitary, 5-12-flowered, finely pubescent; flowers white, ca. 5 mm, pedicels 4-8 mm.   44 C. mairei
       
34 (20) Inflorescence few flowered, always subumbellate or corymbose, (1-)3-5-flowered, generally all short   (35)
+ Inflorescence subracemose or paniculate, many flowered, with floral branchlets, terminal one being 1-5-flowered cyme   (38)
       
35 (34) Leaf blade small, obovate, apex obtuse or rounded, reticulate veins and veinlets conspicuously elevated on both surfaces.   20 C. reticulatum
+ Leaf blade generally large, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, apex shortly acuminate or acute, occasionally obtuse, reticulate veins and veinlets inconspicuous and not elevated on both surfaces, especially so adaxially   (36)
       
36 (35) Perianth entirely glabrous outside, papillate-ciliolate on margin, sericeous inside.   22 C. jensenianum
+ Perianth densely gray sericeous on both sides, not papillate-ciliolate on margin   (37)
       
37 (36) Mature fruit ovoid, larger, up to 20 × 14 mm; perianth cup in fruit ca. 1 cm, up to 1.5 cm wide, truncate at apex, not dentate on margin; fruit stalk ca. 5 mm.   25 C. rigidissimum
+ Mature fruit ellipsoid, smaller, ca. 11 × 5-5.5 mm; perianth cup in fruit ca. 3 mm, up to 4 mm wide, regularly truncate-dentate on margin; fruit stalk up to 9 mm.   21 C. pauciflorum
       
38 (34) Perianth cup in fruit truncate, undulate or irregularly dentate on margin   (39)
+ Perianth cup in fruit regularly dentate on margin, teeth truncate, rounded, or acute at apex   (44)
       
39 (38) Inflorescence glabrous   (40)
+ Inflorescence ± hairy   (41)
       
40 (39) Leaf blade ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 7-10 × 3-3.5 cm, acute to acuminate at apex, base broadly cuneate or obtuse, glabrous on both surfaces.   23 C. japonicum
+ Leaf blade ovate, ovate-oblong, or ovate-lanceolate, 8-12 × (2.5-)3.5-5(-5.5) cm, shortly acuminate at apex, base obtuse to subrounded, glabrous adaxially, sparsely pubescent abaxially.   24 C. osmophloeum
       
41 (39) Inflorescence paniculate, trichotomous, many flowered, as long as leaf blade, branchlets divaricate, terminal one being 3-flowered cyme; leaf blade elliptic, reddish and glaucous abaxially, lateral veins and midrib somewhat impressed adaxially, very elevated abaxially.   26 C. validinerve
+ Inflorescence subracemose or paniculate, but all much shorter than leaf blade, branchlets not divaricate; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, greenish or whitish green abaxially, lateral veins and midrib somewhat elevated adaxially, conspicuously elevated abaxially   (42)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade papery; inflorescence sparsely puberulent.   27 C. liangii
+ Leaf blade leathery; inflorescence sericeous-pubescent or appressed tomentose   (43)
       
43 (42) Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to oblong, (6-)8-12(-17) × (2.5-)3-5(-5.5) cm, brown adaxially, white-green or sparsely finely puberulent abaxially when dry; short panicle axillary or subterminal, generally inserted in leaf axils remote from apex of branchlet, gray sericeous-pubescent; perianth cup in fruit leathery.   28 C. tonkinense
+ Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, 7-11 × 1.5-3.5 cm, brown-green adaxially, greenish and sparsely wrinkled pubescent but soon glabrate abaxially when dry; short panicle axillary or subterminal but not inserted in leaf axils remote from apex of branchlet, appressed tomentose; perianth cup in fruit woody.   29 C. tsoi
       
44 (38) Terminal branchlet of panicle bearing a 3-5-flowered cyme; basal lateral veins evanescent below leaf apex.   36 C. tamala
+ Terminal branchlet of panicle bearing a 1-3-flowered cyme; basal lateral veins extending to leaf apex or up to 3/4 of leaf blade or evanescent near apex   (45)
       
45 (44) Panicle short, much shorter than leaf blade; fruit ovoid, ca. 8 mm   (46)
+ Panicle large, always as long as leaf blade; fruit ellipsoid or ovoid, 10-15 mm   (47)
       
46 (45) Leaf blade linear to lanceolate, (3.8-)4.5-12(-15) × (0.7-)1-2(-4) cm, appressed sericeous- pubescent abaxially especially when young; peduncle slender; pedicels up to 10(-12) cm.   30 C. heyneanum
+ Leaf blade ovate or oblong to lanceolate, 5.5-10.5 × 2-5 cm, glabrous or subglabrous abaxially when young; peduncle robust; pedicels 4-6 mm.   31 C. burmannii
       
47 (45) Leaf blade elliptic-oblong, 12-30 × 4-9 cm, thickly leathery, trinerved or triplinerved, apex obtuse, acute, or acuminate, base subrounded or attenuate, basal lateral veins oblique, basal lateral veins and midrib reaching leaf apex; petiole 1-1.5 cm.   32 C. bejolghota
+ Leaf blade ovate to oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, smaller, leathery or subleathery to papery, triplinerved, apex acute or rounded but not obtuse, base acute or rounded, basal lateral veins extending up to 3/4 of leaf blade or evanescent near apex; petiole 1.5-2 cm   (48)
       
48 (47) Leaf blade leathery, ovate or oblong-ovate, 8-11(-14) × 4-5.5(-9) cm, apex acute, base rounded, basal lateral veins extending up to 3/4 of leaf blade, veins and veinlets conspicuously and densely shallowly foveolate abaxially; panicles terminal; teeth of perianth cup in fruit short and rounded; branches, leaves, and bark not scented when dry; wild.   33 C. kotoense
+ Leaf blade leathery or subleathery to papery, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 11-16 × 4.5-5.5 cm, apex acuminate, base acute, basal lateral veins evanescent near leaf apex, veins and veinlets slightly conspicuous but not shallowly foveolate abaxially; panicles axillary and terminal; teeth of perianth cup in fruit truncate or acute; branches, leaves, and bark strongly scented when dry; cultivated.   34 C. verum

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