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11. Ranunculaceae Jussieu

毛茛科 mao gen ke

Authors: Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman

Thalictrum cultratum

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial or annual, sometimes subshrubs or herbaceous or woody vines. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, simple or variously compound, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free, petaloid or sepaloid, imbricate or sometimes valvate in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous, rarely few, free; filaments linear or filiform; anthers latrorse, introrse, or extrorse; sometimes some sterile stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate to various degrees; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.

About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions, particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.

Nigella damascena Linnaeus and N. glandulifera Freyn & Sintenis are cultivated (not native) in China.

Wang Wen-tsai, Wang Shu-hsiou & Hsiao Pei-ken. 1979. Ranunculaceae subfam. Helleboroideae and subfam. Thalictroideae. In: Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 27: 59–601; Wang Wen-tsai, Chang Mei-chen, Fang Ming-yuan, Ling Ping-ping, Ting Chih-tsun, Wang Shu-hsiou & Liou Liang. 1980. Ranunculaceae subfam. Ranunculoideae. In: Wang Wen-tsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 28: 1–345.


1 Ovary with 1 ovule; fruit an achene.   (2)
+ Ovary with several or many ovules; fruit a follicle, rarely a capsule or berry.   (17)
       
2 (1) Inflorescence with an involucre.   (3)
+ Inflorescence without an involucre.   (6)
       
3 (2) Involucre contiguous with flower, calyxlike   25 Hepatica
+ Involucre separate from flower.   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaves pinnatisect, penninerved; pollen grains spinulose   26 Anemoclema
+ Leaves 1 to few times palmately or subpinnately divided, palmately nerved; pollen grains not spinulose.   (5)
       
5 (4) Style strongly elongate and plumose in fruit   27 Pulsatilla
+ Style not as above   24 Anemone
       
6 (2) Petals absent.   (7)
+ Petals present.   (10)
       
7 (6) Sepals valvate in bud; style usually strongly elongate and plumose in fruit; cauline leaves opposite, rarely alternate   29 Clematis
+ Sepals imbricate in bud; style not as above; cauline leaves (if present) alternate.   (8)
       
8 (7) Achene (1--)3-ribbed on each side; leaves compound, rarely simple   21 Thalictrum
+ Achene not ribbed; leaves simple.   (9)
       
9 (8) Basal leaves several, palmately lobed or undivided, veins reticulately anastomosing; staminodes absent   28 Metanemone
+ Basal leaf 1, palmatisect, veins dichotomously branched, not anastomosing; staminodes present   31 Kingdonia
       
10 (6) Vines woody; cauline leaves opposite; style strongly elongate and plumose in fruit   30 Naravelia
+ Herbs perennial or annual; cauline leaves (if present) alternate; style not as above.   (11)
       
11 (10) Petals without nectaries   33 Adonis
+ Petals with nectaries.   (12)
       
12 (11) Aggregate fruit terete, achene with a robust, rostrate, persistent style at apex and 2 tubercles near base   38 Ceratocephala
+ Aggregate fruit not terete, achene with neither robust, rostrate, persistent style at apex nor tubercles near base.   (13)
       
13 (12) Basal leaves several times pinnatisect; ovule pendulous from ovary locule apex   32 Callianthemum
+ Basal leaves not pinnatisect; ovule attached to ovary locule base.   (14)
       
14 (13) Achene ribbed on each side.   (15)
+ Achene not ribbed.   (16)
       
15 (14) Stolons absent; petals 13--15; achene 1-ribbed on each side   36 Oxygraphis
+ Stolons present; petals 5--10; achene 2- or 3-ribbed on each side   37 Halerpestes
       
16 (14) Petals yellow; achene smooth, rarely spinulose or tuberculate   34 Ranunculus
+ Petals white, rarely yellow; achene transversely rugose on each side   35 Batrachium
       
17 (1) Flowers zygomorphic; inflorescences usually racemose; pedicels 2-bracteolate.   (18)
+ Flower actinomorphic; inflorescences monochasial or, if racemose, pedicels ebracteolate.   (20)
       
18 (17) Upper sepal spurless; petals clawed   10 Aconitum
+ Upper sepal spurred; petals clawless.   (19)
       
19 (18) Staminodes 2, each differentiated into claw and limb; petals free; carpels 3--5(--7)   11 Delphinium
+ Staminodes absent; petals connate; carpel 1   12 Consolida
       
20 (17) Flowers many, borne in compound cymes, panicles, or racemes.   (21)
+ Flowers solitary, terminal, or few in monochasia.   (24)
       
21 (20) Leaves simple, undivided; petals and staminodes absent   4 Beesia
+ Leaves 1 or more times ternately or subpinnately compound; petals or staminodes present.   (22)
       
22 (21) Proximal cauline leaves sheathlike; sepals 8--11 mm; fruit slender stipitate   5 Souliea
+ Proximal cauline leaves not sheathlike; sepals less than 4.5 mm; fruit shortly stipitate or sessile.   (23)
       
23 (22) Fruit a berry; basal leaves scalelike   7 Actaea
+ Fruit a follicle; basal leaves not scalelike   6 Cimicifuga
       
24 (20) Petals absent.   (25)
+ Petals present.   (27)
       
25 (24) Leaves 2-ternate   14 Enemion
+ Leaves simple.   (26)
       
26 (25) Leaves entire   1 Caltha
+ Leaves 3-sect   2 Calathodes
       
27 (24) Carpels connate at base   22 Dichocarpum
+ Carpels free.   (28)
       
28 (27) Petals long clawed.   (29)
+ Petals very shortly clawed or clawless.   (30)
       
29 (28) Leaves simple, peltate, entire or palmately lobed; carpels 5--8, free   13 Asteropyrum
+ Leaves usually pedately compound, rarely ternate, not peltate; carpels 2, connate at base.   (28)
       
30 (28) Carpels slender stipitate   23 Coptis
+ Carpels sessile.   (31)
       
31 (30) Staminodes present, membranous, linear-lanceolate.   (32)
+ Staminodes absent.   (34)
       
32 (31) Sepals white; stamens 8--14; style 1/6--1/5 as long as ovary   20 Semiaquilegia
+ Sepals blue or purple; stamens numerous; style ca. 1/2 as long as to longer than ovary.   (33)
       
33 (32) Leaves all basal, simple, 3-sect, or ternate; petals ca. 1/3 as long as sepals, not petaloid (instead specialized nectariferous organs); style ca. 2 × as long as ovary; follicles cubic-globose   18 Urophysa
+ Leaves both basal and cauline, 2 or more times ternate; petals subequaling sepals, petaloid; style ca. 1/2 as long as ovary; follicles narrowly cylindric   19 Aquilegia
       
34 (31) Leaves simple.   (35)
+ Leaves compound.   (37)
       
35 (34) Leaves all basal; inflorescence with an involucre   9 Eranthis
+ Leaves both basal and cauline; inflorescence without an involucre.   (36)
       
36 (35) Leaves palmatipartite or palmatisect; petals linear   3 Trollius
+ Leaves pedatisect; petals tubular or cupular   8 Helleborus
       
37 (34) Leaves all basal, persistent remnants of petioles forming a dense clump; flower solitary, terminal; petals clawless   17 Paraquilegia
+ Leaves both basal and cauline, petioles not forming a clump; flowers few, borne in a monochasium; petals very shortly clawed.   (38)
       
38 (37) Herbs perennial; carpels 1--5   15 Isopyrum
+ Herbs annual; carpels 6--20   16 Leptopyrum

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