All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 2-3 Page 4, 10, 170, 171 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Pteridaceae

1. Coniogramme Fée, Mém. Foug. 5: 167. 1852.

凤了蕨属 feng liao jue shu

Authors: Zhang Gangmin & Tom A. Ranker

Dictyogramme Fée, nom. rej.

Plants terrestrial. Rhizomes decumbent or creeping, sparsely scaly; scales brown, lanceolate, margin entire. Fronds monomorphic, distant or closely spaced; stipe straw-colored or with brown spots, or chestnut-brown, glabrous distally, with a single U-shaped vascular bundle; lamina 1- or 2-imparipinnate, rarely trifoliate or 3-pinnate, sometimes entire in juvenile plants, usually herbaceous to papery, glabrous or with hairs on one or both surfaces. Pinnae usually ca. 5 pairs, stalked; in 1-pinnate species terminal pinna same as lateral pinnae; if 2-pinnate then only proximal pinnae imparipinnate or trifoliate (occasionally basal pair only bifurcate), and terminal pinna same as terminal pinnules of proximal pinnae. Pinnules (or distal simple pinnae) lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, base rounded to cuneate, rarely cordate, margin entire or serrate. Veins free or rarely anastomosing near midrib, then free, vein tips enlarged forming hydathodes. Indusia absent. Sori along veins, intermixed with short, hairy paraphyses. Spores tetrahedral, plain. x = 30.

About 25-30 species: Africa, E and SE Asia, North America; 22 species (11 endemic) in China.

Morphologically, the species in the genus Coniogramme are poorly differentiated. Intermediate individuals exist in some groups, increasing the difficulty of discriminating species. On Emei Shan of Sichuan Province, juvenile plants of some species have simple, lanceolate, or trifoliate to 1-pinnate fronds, and only after several years of development are the fronds 2- or 3-pinnate. The stipe color is also variable, even in the same plant; some stipes are entirely green, and others have brownish purple spots abaxially. The following characters generally seem to be stable: glabrous or hairy lamina surfaces, hair form (jointed hairs or seta), lamina margin (entire or serrate), and the shape and location of the hydathodes (far from the tooth at lamina margin, extending into the teeth, or even fusing with the cartilaginous tooth margin). Further fieldwork and cytological study of the genus are still needed.

The fiddlehead of the species of Coniogramme is an edible vegetable, and the rhizome is known to store starch.

1 Veins anastomosing to form at least some areoles on each side of midrib   (2)
+ Veins all free   (5)
2 (1) Veins anastomosing regularly to form 1 or 2(or 3) continuous rows of areoles on each side of midrib.   22 C. japonica
+ Veins anastomosing irregularly to form 1 discontinuous row of areoles on each side of midrib, occasionally with only 1 or 2 areoles on each side   (3)
3 (2) Veins forming a discontinuous row of areoles on each side of midrib; stipe straw-colored.   21 C. wilsonii
+ Veins forming only 1 or 2 areoles on each side of midrib; stipe chestnut-colored   (4)
4 (3) Pinnules lanceolate, broadest at base, base rounded; hydathodes linear; Yunnan.   19 C. fauriei
+ Pinnules elliptic, broadest at middle, base cuneate; hydathodes shortly clavate; Fujian, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang.   20 C. jinggangshanensis
5 (1) Margins of pinnules entire or at most undulate (C. fraxinea s.l.)   (6)
+ Margins of pinnules serrate or with irregular short obtuse teeth   (9)
6 (5) Hydathodes extending to cartilaginous lamina margin, margins often undulate and revolute when dry.   4 C. merrillii
+ Hydathodes spindle-shaped, not extending to lamina margin   (7)
7 (6) Base of pinnules rounded or slightly cordate.   1 C. petelotii
+ Base of pinnules cuneate or rounded-cuneate   (8)
8 (7) Stipe and rachis abaxially straw-colored.   2 C. fraxinea
+ Stipe and rachis abaxially reddish purple.   3 C. rubicaulis
9 (5) Hydathodes usually not extending to base of marginal tooth   (10)
+ Hydathodes extending into marginal tooth or to tooth base   (12)
10 (9) Lamina 1-pinnate; stipe and rachis usually dark brown to purplish black.   5 C. robusta
+ Lamina 2-pinnate; stipe and rachis straw-colored   (11)
11 (10) Pinnules abaxially shortly hairy, apex caudate.   6 C. serrulata
+ Pinnules abaxially glabrous, apex acuminate.   7 C. venusta
12 (9) Pinnules abaxially papillose, each papilla tipped with a short and stiff hair.   8 C. rosthornii
+ Pinnules abaxially not papillose, glabrous or pubescent with hairs curved and flat   (13)
13 (12) Lamina 3-pinnate in mature plants, lowermost pinnae 2-pinnate   (14)
+ Lamina 1- or 2-pinnate, lowermost pinnae simple pinnules or pinnate, never 2-pinnate   (15)
14 (13) Lamina with middle pinnules broadly lanceolate, widest at base, at ca. 90?to costae.   9 C. procera
+ Lamina with middle pinnules narrowly oblong-lanceolate, sides subparallel; pinnules oblique.   10 C. affinis
15 (13) Pinnules lanceolate or oblanceolate; hydathodes extending into teeth and close to or fusing with tooth margin   (16)
+ Pinnules often broadly lanceolate to oblong; hydathodes extending to tooth base or slightly into teeth   (18)
16 (15) Pinnules lanceolate or oblanceolate, base narrowly cuneate, apex abruptly caudate; hydathodes fusing with cartilaginous tooth margin.   17 C. pubescens
+ Pinnules lanceolate, base rounded to rounded-cuneate, apex long acuminate or caudate-acuminate; hydathodes extending into teeth or close to tooth margin   (17)
17 (16) Teeth of pinnule margin dense, sharp, and fine; hydathodes slightly thicker than veins, extending to tips of teeth and fused with teeth.   10 C. affinis
+ Teeth of pinnule margin coarse, spreading; hydathodes twice as thick as veins, extending into teeth or close to tooth margin.   18 C. intermedia
18 (15) Pinnules abaxially glabrous   (19)
+ Pinnules abaxially hairy   (21)
19 (18) Pinnules ovate or ovate-oblong; hydathodes extending slightly into teeth.   13 C. ovata
+ Pinnules broadly lanceolate; hydathodes extending to tooth base   (20)
20 (19) Pinnules straight.   11 C. emeiensis
+ Pinnules arcuate or falcate.   12 C. falcipinna
21 (18) Stipe and rachis reddish purple.   14 C. sinensis
+ Stipe and rachis straw-colored or purplish brown proximally   (22)
22 (21) Pinnules adaxially with short and sunken jointed hairs.   15 C. suprapilosa
+ Pinnules adaxially glabrous.   16 C. caudiformis

  • List of lower taxa


  • Flora of China @
    Browse by
    Advanced Search

    Flora of China Home




     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |