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22. Pteridaceae

凤尾蕨科 feng wei jue ke

Authors: Zhang Gangmin, Wenbo Liao, Ding Mingyan, Youxing Lin, Zhaohong Wu, Zhang Xianchun, Shiyong Dong, Jefferson Prado, Michael G. Gilbert, George Yatskievych, Tom A. Ranker, Elisabeth A. Hooper, Edward R. Alverson, Jordan S. Metzgar, Michele Funston, Shigeo Masuyama & Masahiro Kato

Pteris wallichiana

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Plants mostly terrestrial or epilithic, some epiphytic, rarely aquatic (Ceratopteris), small to large. Rhizomes erect, ascending, or creeping, siphonostelic, solenostelic, or dictyostelic, usually scaly, rarely with bristles; scales brown or black, sometimes clathrate and iridescent, lanceolate to cordate, sometimes peltate, margin usually entire. Fronds mostly monomorphic, less often dimorphic or subdimorphic, clustered to widely scattered, not articulate; stipe well defined, dark, often glossy, to ill defined and green, terete or adaxially grooved, glabrous, hairy, or scaly, with 1-4 vascular bundles (or to many in Ceratopteris) near base, combining distally; lamina entire or 1-4-pinnate to 5-pinnate-pinnatifid, less often digitate, pedate, or 1-3 dichotomous with pedate branches; ultimate pinnules often stalked, sometimes articulate, herbaceous, papery, or leathery, more rarely membranous or fleshy; veins free or anastomosing, if anastomosing then areoles without free included veinlets. Sori mostly confluent along veins or marginal commissures, sometimes immersed in grooves, less often discrete on vein tips or on recurved membranous marginal lobe (false indusium), sometimes acrostichoid or rarely forming a narrow longitudinal band between midrib and margin (Taenitis); true indusium absent, marginal sori often protected by false indusium formed from revolute lamina margin. Sporangia usually long stalked, annulus vertical or rarely oblique, interrupted by stalk. Spores mostly brown, yellowish, or colorless, mostly tetrahedral-globose and trilete, rarely ellipsoid and monolete, smooth or ornamented, sometimes with an equatorial flange. Mostly x = 29, 30.

About 50 genera and 950 species: subcosmopolitan, but most numerous in tropics and arid regions; 20 genera and 233 species (89 endemic, one introduced) in five subfamilies in China.

Ching Ren-chang, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Chu-hao & Shing Gung-hsia. 1959. Taenitis. In: Ching Ren-chang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 2: 279-280; Lin Youxing. 1990. Adiantaceae and Parkeriaceae. In: Ching Renchang & Shing Kunghsia, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 3(1): 173-216, 274-278; Shing Kunghsia. 1990. Acrostichaceae and Hemionitidaceae. In: Ching Renchang & Shing Kunghsia, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 3(1): 92-94, 216-274, 279; Shing Kunghsia & Wu Sukung. 1990. Sinopteridaceae (excluding Cheilosoria and Notholaena). In: Ching Renchang & Shing Kunghsia, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 3(1): 97-173; Wu Shiewhung. 1990. Pteridaceae (excluding Histiopteris). In: Ching Renchang & Shing Kunghsia, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 3(1): 10-89; Zhang Xian-chun. 1999. Antrophyaceae and Vittariaceae. In: Chu Wei-ming, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 3(2): 1-31.

1 Sporangia along veins or over most of abaxial surface of lamina   (2)
+ Sporangia in discrete sori, usually near lamina margin   (10)
2 (1) Lamina simple, entire   (3)
+ Lamina 1-3-pinnate   (6)
3 (2) Plants terrestrial; base of lamina cordate or hastate, stipe clearly differentiated.   15 Parahemionitis
+ Plants epiphytic or epilithic; base of lamina tapered, merging gradually into poorly differentiated stipe   (4)
4 (3) Fronds obovate to oblanceolate, widest above middle, rarely linear, costa absent or only at lower part; sori multiseriate along veins, in grooves along veins on abaxial surface of lamina, rarely one row on each side; spores monolete.   18 Antrophyum
+ Fronds filiform to linear or ribbonlike, rarely lanceolate, costa distinct up to apex or upper part; sori biseriate or uniseriate, in marginal or submarginal grooves, rarely superficial, or along costa; spores trilete or monolete   (5)
5 (4) Sori biseriate in marginal or submarginal grooves, rarely superficial; spores monolete.   19 Haplopteris
+ Sori uniseriate, 1-3 along costa or on lateral veins, immersed; spores trilete.   20 Monogramma
6 (2) Lamina with white or yellow farina on abaxial surface.   8 Pityrogramma
+ Lamina lacking white or yellow farina on abaxial surface   (7)
7 (6) Stipe distally densely villous; plants of dry situations.   16 Paragymnopteris
+ Stipe distally glabrous; plants of mesic to wet situations   (8)
8 (7) Fronds to 15 cm; plants annual, usually with persistent gametophyte at base.   6 Anogramma
+ Fronds 30 to >100 cm; plants perennial, without persistent gametophyte   (9)
9 (8) Veins free or rarely anastomosing near costa, then free; sori borne along veins; inland forests at up to 2800(-3600) m.   1 Coniogramme
+ Veins anastomosing; sporangia scattered on whole of abaxial lamina surface; coastal areas below 100 m, often in mangrove swamps.   3 Acrostichum
10 (1) Plants succulent, aquatic.   4 Ceratopteris
+ Plants terrestrial, epiphytic, or epilithic, not succulent   (11)
11 (10) Rhizome covered with bristles; sori linear and forming a narrow longitudinal band between midrib and margin.   7 Taenitis
+ Rhizome covered with scales; sori borne at ends of veins or on a marginal commissure   (12)
12 (11) Lamina with white or yellow farina on abaxial surface.   14 Aleuritopteris
+ Lamina lacking white or yellow farina on abaxial surface at maturity (sometimes farinose when young)   (13)
13 (12) Pinnules obviously stalked, often articulate (rarely frond reduced to single orbicular to reniform pinnule); stipe and rachis slender, glossy black or reddish brown   (14)
+ Pinnules sessile or obscurely stalked, never articulate, often pinnatifid; stipe and rachis often not dark and glossy   (15)
14 (13) Sporangia protected by reflexed marginal lobes; veins pinnate, often obscure; pinnules mostly hastate to ovate-hastate.   12 Pellaea
+ Sporangia borne on reflexed marginal lobes; veins simple or dichotomously forked, often radiate, pinnule without costule; pinnules ovate, flabellate, orbicular-flabellate, or dimidiate.   17 Adiantum
15 (13) Lamina pentagonal in outline (i.e., proximal basiscopic pinnules of basal pinnae enlarged)   (16)
+ Lamina lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or oblong-triangular to deltoid-lanceolate or deltoid-ovate in outline   (18)
16 (15) Sori borne at vein tips, rounded, separate (confluent when mature); rhizome scales brown or dark brown, concolorous or with narrow lighter brownish margins.   14 Aleuritopteris
+ Sori borne along marginal commissural vein, linear; rhizome scales bicolored, with black and thick central band, broad brownish and membranous margins   (17)
17 (16) Rhizomes long creeping; fronds mostly widely spaced.   10 Calciphilopteris
+ Rhizomes short, erect or ascending; fronds clustered.   11 Doryopteris
18 (15) Ultimate segments or lobes 1-2 mm wide   (19)
+ Ultimate segments or lobes larger, usually more than 5 mm wide   (20)
19 (18) Fertile fronds 4-7 cm; rhizome usually short, often erect, with clustered fronds (rhizome long creeping, with widely spaced fronds in Cryptogramma stelleri).   2 Cryptogramma
+ Fertile fronds (7-)15-60 cm; rhizome often long creeping, with widely spaced fronds.   9 Onychium
20 (18) Sporangia continuous along most of length of pinnae along commissural vein; pinnae entire or pectinately divided into segments, sometimes asymmetrical.   5 Pteris
+ Sporangia in discrete sori at veins tips at least when young, sometimes later confluent; pinnae pinnatifid, variously shaped but symmetrical and not pectinate   (21)
21 (20) Lamina margins not or only slightly reflexed, indusia absent; lamina with dense, yellow to brownish, long hairs abaxially.   13 Cheilanthes
+ Lamina margins reflexed and modified, forming scarious false indusia; lamina glabrous or relatively sparsely hairy (in a few species also glandular and/or scaly) abaxially   (22)
22 (21) Scales of rhizome lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, usually black or dark brown, with an entire margin.   13 Cheilanthes
+ Scales of rhizome ovate-lanceolate, brown, semihyaline, with a sparsely serrate margin.   14 Aleuritopteris

  • List of lower taxa


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