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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

65. Crepis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 805. 1753.

还阳参属 huan yang shen shu

Authors: Zhu Shi & Norbert Kilian

Barkhausia Moench; Berinia Brignoli; Hieracioides Vaillant; Lepicaune Lapeyrouse; Soyeria Monnier.

Herbs, perennial, biennial, or annual, rhizomatous or with a taproot. Stems leafy or leafless. Leaves pinnate or not divided, margin entire or toothed. Synflorescence corymbiform, paniculiform, or racemiform, rarely a solitary capitulum. Capitula erect, medium to large in size. Involucre cylindric to campanulate. Phyllaries in several series; outer phyllaries ± imbricate, centripetally gradually longer, longest 1/4-2/3 or more as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries usually equal in length, linear-lanceolate, abaxially usually with simple and/or glandular hairs, rarely glabrous, adaxially glabrous or with appressed silky hairs. Receptacle naked [or more rarely paleate or with bristles]. Florets yellow [or more rarely reddish purple]. Achene cylindric to fusiform, with 10-20 equal finely spinulescent or smooth and glabrous ribs, apex distinctly attenuate, constricted, or beaked. Pappus white to pale yellowish, soft to rigidulous, scabrid, persistent or caducous.

About 200 species: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; 18 species (five endemic) in China.

1 Plants with a horizontal, vertical, or oblique rhizome   (2)
+ Plants without rhizomes but with a taproot   (9)
2 (1) Leaf blade of at least some leaves pinnately lobed, otherwise stem leafless; stem leafless or leafy   (3)
+ Leaf blade not divided and stem always leafy   (6)
3 (2) Stem leafless or almost so   (4)
+ Stem leafy with leaves ± clasping stem   (5)
4 (3) Phyllaries abaxially densely with white arachnoid hairs, and stiff, greenish, glandular hairs along midvein; anther tube 1-2 mm.   1 C. multicaulis
+ Phyllaries abaxially sparsely with white arachnoid hairs, and with blackish glandular hairs along midvein; anther tube 2-3 mm.   2 C. elongata
5 (3) Involucre 7-9 mm, abaxially with short blackish glandular hairs and often with setaceous simple hairs; achene 3.5-4 mm.   3 C. lyrata
+ Involucre 10-13 mm, abaxially glabrous or sparsely white hairy (especially at apex) or with black long simple hairs on midvein; achene 4-6 mm.   6 C. coreana
6 (2) Involucre 1.4-1.6 cm or longer   (7)
+ Involucre 0.8-1.3 cm   (8)
7 (6) Stem especially apically with white arachnoid and with stiff subulate greenish hairs; leaf blade margin irregularly and coarsely toothed; involucre abaxially densely with pale stiff subulate hairs especially on midvein.   5 C. sibirica
+ Stem sparsely apically arachnoid hairy and densely so under capitula, also with long dark green to blackish hairs; leaf blade margin subentire; involucre abaxially white arachnoid hairy and with dark green to blackish long hairs.   9 C. chrysantha
8 (6) Involucre 1-1.3 cm, abaxially glabrous to sparsely white hairy (especially at apex) or with black long simple hairs on midvein.   6 C. coreana
+ Involucre 0.8-1 cm, abaxially with stipitate blackish glandular hairs on midvein.   17 C. shihii
9 (1) Synflorescence racemiform to very narrowly paniculiform with some to numerous capitula.   14 C. napifera
+ Synflorescence of a solitary capitulum or corymbiform and of 2 to numerous capitula   (10)
10 (9) Inner phyllaries adaxially appressed hairy (as seen with a lens)   (11)
+ Inner phyllaries adaxially glabrous (as seen with a lens)   (13)
11 (10) Stem leafy; leaves sagittately clasping stem, margin of upper stem leaves revolute; synflorescence of some to many capitula; involucre 0.7-0.9 cm.   4 C. tectorum
+ Stem leafless or sparsely leafy; leaves not clasping stem, margin not revolute; synflorescence of a solitary capitulum or of few capitula; involucre 0.9-1.5 cm   (12)
12 (11) Involucre 0.9-1.1 cm; phyllaries abaxially with white arachnoid hairs along midvein but without thicker yellow hairs.   7 C. oreades
+ Involucre 1-1.5 cm; phyllaries abaxially with ± white arachnoid hairs and especially along midvein with thicker yellowish glandular or partly non-glandular hairs.   8 C. crocea
13 (10) Plants only with well-developed basal leaves or with basal leaves and lower stem leaves well developed and these larger than upper stem leaves, largest leaves oblanceolate to elliptic and 2-5 cm wide   (14)
+ Basal leaves or lower stem leaves reduced, linear-subulate, triangular, or bractlike, middle and upper stem leaves well developed, largest stem leaves lanceolate to linear and 1-25 mm wide   (16)
14 (13) Plants subacaulescent, 3-5 cm tall.   18 C. tianshanica
+ Plants with well-developed stems, 20-60 cm tall   (15)
15 (14) Stems leafless or almost so with stem leaves (if present) much reduced and not clasping stem.   15 C. subscaposa
+ Stems with well-developed leaves clasping stem.   16 C. darvazica
16 (13) Middle and upper stem leaves lanceolate, elliptic, or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, 0.3-2.5 cm wide.   10 C. phoenix
+ Middle and upper stem leaves linear, 1-10 mm wide   (17)
17 (16) Leaf blade soft in texture, dark green; stems smooth and dark green; capitula with 18-30 florets.   11 C. bodinieri
+ Leaf blade rigid in texture, usually pale yellowish green; stems angular and pale green; capitula with 7-12 florets (only exceptionally more)   (18)
18 (17) Plants sparsely to moderately and divaricately branched from base, above middle, or at apex; stem leaves to 8 cm.   12 C. rigescens
+ Plants strongly and fastigiately branched from base or below middle; stem leaves to 3 cm.   13 C. lignea

  • List of lower taxa


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