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Styracaceae Dumortier

安息香科 an xi xiang ke

Authors: Shumei Huang & James W. Grimes

Trees or shrubs, usually stellate pubescent or scaly, rarely glabrous. Leaves usually alternate, simple; stipules absent or very minute. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, panicles, or cymes, rarely 1-flowered or several flowers in a fascicle; bracteoles minute or absent. Flowers bisexual, rarely polygamous dioecious, actinomorphic. Calyx campanulate, obconical, or cup-shaped; tube completely or partially adnate to ovary; teeth or lobes 4 or 5(or 6), sometimes very small or obsolete. Corolla mostly white, gamopetalous; lobes (4 or)5(--7), basally ± connate, rarely free, imbricate or valvate, rarely slightly induplicate. Stamens twice, sometimes equal in number to corolla lobes, inserted at base of corolla; filaments mostly flattened, basally partially or completely connate into a tube; anthers introrse, 2-locular, locules parallel and opening by longitudinal slits. Ovary superior, half inferior, or inferior, 3--5-locular or apically 1-locular and basally 3--5-locular; ovules few or solitary in each locule, erect, pendulous, or anatropous, integument 1 or 2, placentation axile or parietal. Style slender, linear or subulate; stigma truncate, capitate or 2--5-lobed. Fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule, exocarp fleshy to dry. Seeds sometimes winged, often with a broad hilum; embryo straight or slightly curved; endosperm copious; cotyledons flattened or subterete.

Eleven genera and ca. 180 species: tropical and temperate America, Asia, and Mediterranean; 10 genera (two endemic) and 54 species (32 endemic) in China.

Hwang Shu-mei in Wu Rong-fen (as Wu Young-fen) & Hwang Shu-mei, eds. 1987. Styracaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 60(2): 77-150.

1 Fruit completely separate from or slightly adnate to persistent calyx; ovary superior.   (2)
+ Fruit partially or almost completely adnate to persistent calyx; ovary inferior.   (4)
2 (1) Ovary 3-locular when young, becoming 1-locular; seeds 1 or 2, without wings, rounded at both ends; pedicel not jointed   1 Styrax
+ Ovary 5(or 6)-locular; seeds numerous, winged or acute at both ends; pedicel jointed.   (3)
3 (2) Filaments coherent or slightly connate at base; fruit drupaceous, indehiscent, pear-shaped; seeds pointed at both ends   2 Bruinsmia
+ Filaments connate at least to middle; fruit capsular dehiscing loculicidally by 5 valves; seeds winged at both ends   3 Alniphyllum
4 (1) Fruit dehiscing loculicidally by 3 valves; seeds winged at both ends; petals free, connective 2- or 3-dentate   4 Huodendron
+ Fruit indehiscent; seeds without wings; petals connate at base (shortly coherent in Pterostyrax), connective entire.   (5)
5 (4) Corolla lobes 4(or 5); fruit with 2--4 wings   5 Halesia
+ Corolla lobes 5 (4--7 in Sinojackia); fruit with 5--12 ribs or wings (Parastyrax without ribs or wings).   (6)
6 (5) Flowers solitary or 2 together; filaments of equal length   6 Melliodendron
+ Flowers in racemes, panicles, or thyrses; filaments 5 long and 5 short or subequal (sometimes equal in Sinojackia).   (7)
7 (6) Leaf blade margin entire or callose-denticulate; inflorescences crowded   10 Parastyrax
+ Leaf blade margin serrate or serrulate; inflorescences not crowded.   (8)
8 (7) Winter buds enclosed by scales; fruit apex with a short point   9 Rehderodendron
+ Winter buds naked; fruit apex tapering into a beak.   (9)
9 (8) Inflorescences paniculate; calyx tube campanulate; fruit exocarp thin, crusty   7 Pterostyrax
+ Inflorescences racemose cymes; calyx tube obconical; fruit exocarp thick, woody or fleshy   8 Sinojackia

Lower Taxa


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