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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Styracaceae

1. Styrax Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 444. 1753.

安息香属 an xi xiang shu

Cyrta Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 278. 1790.

Trees or shrubs, stellate pubescent or scaly, rarely glabrous. Leaves usually alternate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemes, panicles, or cymes, sometimes 1-flowered or several-flowered in a fascicle; bracteoles small, early deciduous. Flowers bisexual. Calyx cup-shaped, 5-toothed, rarely 2--6-lobed or truncate. Corolla campanulate; lobes 5(--7), imbricate or valvate. Stamens (8--)10(--13), equal or rarely unequal in length; filaments flattened, free, sometimes basally adnate to corolla; anthers oblong. Ovary superior, 3-locular when young, becoming 1-locular; ovules 1--4 per locule, placentation parietal. Style subulate or filiform; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Drupe, indehiscent or 3-valvate dehiscent, exocarp fleshy to dry. Seeds 1(or 2); seed coat almost bony, with a large basal hilum; endosperm fleshy or almost bony; embryo straight.

About 130 species: E Asia, N and S America, Mediterranean; 31 species in China.

Note: missed species (not treated in FOC): Styrax bracteolatus Guillaumin (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70: 883. 1924 [1923 publ. 1924]: type (Ducloux 2137, P)).

1 Corolla lobe margin usually narrowly involute, valvate or induplicate.   (2)
+ Corolla lobe margin plane, imbricate.   (14)
2 (1) Calyx and pedicel glabrous   19 Styrax wuyuanensis
+ Calyx and pedicel densely scaly or stellate pubescent.   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blade abaxially densely covered with silvery gray or brownish glossy scales   20 Styrax argentifolius
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or stellate tomentose.   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade abaxially densely stellate tomentose.   (5)
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or sparsely stellate pubescent.   (9)
5 (4) Petiole 1--3 mm; leaf blade abaxially densely grayish stellate tomentose, tertiary veins reticulate; fruit obovoid, ca. 6 mm in diam.   21 Styrax calvescens
+ Petiole 10--30 mm; leaf blade abaxially densely brown or browish stellate tomentose, tertiary veins subparallel; fruit ovoid-globose, globose, or subglobose, 10--22 mm in diam.   (6)
6 (5) Calyx teeth ovate-deltoid and ca. 2 mm; leaf blade abaxially densely stellate tomentose but stellate pubescent on veins   22 Styrax chinensis
+ Calyx teeth ± rudimentary, limb undulate, truncate, or subtruncate and less than 2 mm; leaves abaxially stellate tomentose.   (7)
7 (6) Leaf blade twice or more as long as wide, base cuneate; fruit ovoid-globose   25 Styrax suberifolius
+ Leaf blade less than twice as long as wide, base rounded or broadly cuneate; fruit globose or compressed globose.   (8)
8 (7) Petiole 2--3 cm; leaf blade thickly leathery, apex shortly acuminate   23 Styrax hainanensis
+ Petiole 1--1.5 cm; leaf blade leathery, apex acuminate   24 Styrax benzoides
9 (4) Fruit cylindrical to oblique-ovoid or ellipsoid to ellipsoid-ovoid; filaments flexuous.   (10)
+ Fruit subglobose, globose, ovoid, or obovoid; filaments straight.   (11)
10 (9) Fruit cylindrical to oblique-ovoid, 1.2--3 X 8--16 mm, apex rostrate to shortly pointed; leaf blade elliptic, oblong, or elliptic lanceolate, margin entire or irregularly denticulate   26 Styrax agrestis
+ Fruit ellipsoid to ellipsoid-ovoid, 8--16 X 6--8 mm, apex acute or apiculate; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate, margin serrate or rarely entire   27 Styrax serrulatus
11 (9) Trees; leaf blade leathery or nearly leathery; inflorescences (3--)5-flowered or more.   (12)
+ Shrubs; leaf blade papery; inflorescences to 5-flowered.   (13)
12 (11) Inflorescences racemose; fruit 8--15 mm in diam.   28 Styrax confusus
+ Inflorescences paniculate; fruit 5--7 mm in diam.   29 Styrax dasyanthus
13 (11) Calyx 2.5--3 mm; fruit irregularly rugose   30 Styrax formosanus
+ Calyx 4--5 mm; fruit smooth   31 Styrax faberi
14 (1) Leaf blade abaxially densely stellate tomentose.   (15)
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or sparsely stellate pubescent.   (21)
15 (14) Branchlets with a pair of opposite leaves at base; inflorescences a well defined 6--15 cm raceme, sometimes with 1 to 3 lateral racemes from near base.   (16)
+ Leaves never opposite; inflorescences an irregular panicle with cymose branches or if unbranched and racemelike then 6 cm or less (sometimes to 10 cm in S. tonkinensis).   (17)
16 (15) Petiole forming a broad sheath at base to enclose winter buds; leaf blade subrounded to broadly elliptic   1 Styrax obassis
+ Petiole without a broad sheath at base; leaf blade elliptic to elliptic-oblong   2 Styrax huanus
17 (15) Seeds densely tuberculate, stellate pubescent; inflorescence a 3--10 cm raceme   3 Styrax tonkinensis
+ Seeds smooth or rugose, glabrous; inflorescences to 6 cm, often paniculate.   (18)
18 (17) Leaf blade 1--2.5(--4) X 0.7--2(--2.6) cm, margin 2--4 lobed or apically coarsely serrate; calyx 2--3 mm   4 Styrax wilsonii
+ Leaf blade 3.5--8.5(--9.5) X 2--4.5 cm, margin entire or finely serrate to serrulate, never lobed; calyx 4.5--7 mm.   (19)
19 (18) Bracteoles linear, 6--12 mm; leaf blade adaxially usually rugose; fruit ca. 8 mm in diam.   5 Styrax rugosus
+ Bracteoles subulate, 3--4 mm; leaf blade adaxially not rugose or sometimes slightly rugose when young (adaxially rugose in S. perkinsiae); fruit 10--15 mm in diam.   (20)
20 (19) Branchlets and abaxial surface of leaves including veins densely brownish stellate tomentose and shortly pubescent; leaf blade elliptic to obovate   6 Styrax limprichtii
+ Branchlets and abaxial surface of leaves densely gray stellate tomentose but not shortly pubescent; leaf blade ovate, ovate-elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate   7 Styrax perkinsiae
21 (14) Leaves at least some subopposite, either a pair at base of each new shoot or near apex of branchlets.   (22)
+ Leaves always alternate.   (25)
22 (21) Leaf blade coarsely serrate to 3--5-lobed; calyx teeth 4--5 mm, lanceolate; stamens alternately differing in length   10 Styrax supaii
+ Leaf blade entire, subentire, denticulate, or serrate; calyx teeth less than 3 mm, deltoid, triangular, or subulate; stamens ± equal in length.   (23)
23 (22) Inflorescences 8--10-flowered; petiole 7--15 mm   11 Styrax hemsleyanus
+ Inflorescences 1-flowered; petiole less than 7 mm or absent.   (24)
24 (23) Fruit 2--2.5 cm in diam.; seeds glabrous   12 Styrax macrocarpus
+ Fruit 1--1.2 cm in diam.; seeds sparsely stellate pubescent   13 Styrax zhejiangensis
25 (21) Fruit densely golden-yellow stellate tomentose; leaf blade sparsely hirsute with both simple and stellate hairs   14 Styrax chrysocarpus
+ Fruit densely gray, gray-yellow, or brownish stellate pubescent; leaf blade glabrous to stellate (mixed with simple hairs in S. roseus).   (26)
26 (25) Pedicel 2.5--5 cm, equal to or longer than subtended flower.   (27)
+ Pedicel 0.2--1.8 cm, often shorter than subtended flower.   (28)
27 (26) Pedicel and calyx glabrous or (S. japonicus var. calyconthrix) sparsely stellate pubescent   8 Styrax japonicus
+ Pedicel and calyx densely stellate tomentose   9 Styrax grandiflorus
28 (26) Seeds with scales; leaves yellowish when dried; filaments slightly flexuous at middle   15 Styrax odoratissimus
+ Seeds glabrous; leaves brownish to dark green when dried; filaments not flexuous.   (29)
29 (28) Leaf blade base narrowly cuneate; fruit smooth when mature   16 Styrax bashanensis
+ Leaf blade base rounded or broadly cuneate; fruit rugose when mature.   (30)
30 (29) Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to oblong; petiole 5--10 mm; calyx yellow tomentose; corolla tube 3--4 mm; fruit obovoid-cylindrical   17 Styrax macranthus
+ Leaf blade elliptic to ovate-elliptic; petiole 3--5 mm; calyx yellow-brown to orange-red and tomentose to shortly pubescent; corolla tube ca. 2 mm; fruit subglobose   18 Styrax roseus

  • List of lower taxa


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