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91. Cymbidium Swartz, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 2. 6: 70. 1799.

兰属 lan shu

Authors: Zhongjian Liu, Xinqi Chen & Phillip J. Cribb

Cyperorchis Blume; Iridorchis Blume (1859), not Iridorkis Thouars (1809); Jensoa Rafinesque; Liuguishania Z. J. Liu & J. N. Zhang; Semiphajus Gagnepain, p.p.; Wutongshania Z. J. Liu & J. N. Zhang.

Herbs, epiphytic, lithophytic, or terrestrial, autotrophic or rarely mycotrophic, usually with pseudobulbs. Pseudobulbs ovoid, ellipsoid, or spindle-shaped, rarely absent or stemlike, often enclosed in leaf bases. Leaves several to many, distichous, usually lorate or linear, rarely oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, often articulate toward base. Inflorescence arising from base of pseudobulb or rarely from axils of leaves, erect to pendulous; rachis several to many flowered, rarely reduced to a solitary flower; floral bracts persistent. Flowers large or medium-sized. Sepals and petals free, subsimilar; lip free or basally fused for 3-6 mm to base of column, usually 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, often clasping column; mid-lobe often recurved; disk usually with 2 longitudinal lamellae extending from base of lip to base of mid-lobe; lamellae sometimes inflated toward apex or broken in middle. Column rather long, often slightly arcuate, often narrowly winged; pollinia 2 and deeply cleft, or 4 and in 2 unequal pairs, waxy, commonly attached by a very short or indistinct caudicle to a usually broad viscidium.

About 55 species: tropical and subtropical Asia, south to Papua New Guinea and Australia; 49 species (19 endemic) in China.

In China, many species of Cymbidium have been cultivated as ornamentals for many centuries, and a number of cultivated species that have been selected from wild populations now exhibit extreme variation; this is particularly true of C. ensifolium, C. goeringii, C. sinense, and C. tortisepalum. Some of this variability may be the result of hybridization and introgression in the wild. The large number of recently described naturally occurring hybrids in Cymbidium can be explained by the rapid increase of disturbed habitats in China, which has allowed previously ecologically isolated but sympatric species to colonize disturbed areas, such as those left after logging or land-use change.

Cymbidium gongshanense H. Li & G. H. Feng (Acta Bot. Yunnan. 11: 39. 1989) may be a cultivated hybrid.

1 Plants without green leaves at anthesis   (2)
+ Plants with green leaves at anthesis   (4)
2 (1) Typical roots absent, or if present less than 1 cm.   48 C. macrorhizon
+ Typical roots present, 8-12 cm   (3)
3 (2) Leaves apparently not produced; flowers not opening widely; sepals, petals, and lip purple-red to yellowish.   49 C. multiradicatum
+ Leaves emerging after anthesis; flowers opening widely; sepals, petals, and lip greenish to whitish with purplish red markings.   47 C. rhizomatosum
4 (1) Leaves narrowly elliptic or narrowly elliptic-oblanceolate, contracted into a distinct petiole-like stalk at base   (5)
+ Leaves lorate or nearly so, usually not contracted into a petiole-like stalk at base (except in C. baoshanense, C. qiubeiense, and C. teretipetiolatum)   (8)
5 (4) Inflorescence 20-40-flowered; lip unlobed or obscurely 3-lobed, with 2 fleshy calli.   9 C. devonianum
+ Inflorescence 1-9-flowered; lip distinctly 3-lobed, with 2 lamellae or ridges   (6)
6 (5) Pseudobulbs nearly as long as or slightly longer than wide; lip fused at base to basal margins of column for 2-3 mm; pollinia 2.   28 C. tigrinum
+ Pseudobulbs more than 2 × as long as wide; lip not fused at base to basal margins of column; pollinia 4   (7)
7 (6) Pseudobulbs bilaterally flattened, usually tapering toward apex; leaves basally contracted into a petiole-like stalk 3-18 cm; inflorescence usually 2-6-flowered; lateral lobes of lip white with purplish brown markings.   45 C. lancifolium
+ Pseudobulbs cylindric, not flattened nor tapering toward apex; leaves basally contracted into a petiole-like stalk 1-2.5 cm; inflorescence usually 1-flowered; lateral lobes of lip purple.   46 C. recurvatum
8 (4) Lip fused to basal margins of column for 2-10 mm   (9)
+ Lip not fused to basal margins of column   (27)
9 (8) Inflorescence pendulous, 13-35-flowered   (10)
+ Inflorescence erect or arching, 1-11(-15)-flowered   (12)
10 (9) Flowers not pendulous, opening widely, not bell-shaped.   25 C. concinnum
+ Flowers pendulous, not opening widely, bell-shaped   (11)
11 (10) Flowers cream-yellow to pale yellow-green; leaves 1-1.7(-2) cm wide.   26 C. elegans
+ Flowers tawny-brown; leaves 0.8-1(-1.2) cm wide.   27 C. cochleare
12 (9) Inflorescence arising from leaf axils; leaves usually 10-18, bilobed at apex   (13)
+ Inflorescence arising from base of pseudobulb; leaves usually 3-9, unlobed at apex   (16)
13 (12) Pseudobulb stemlike, continuously elongating, 10-30 cm.   24 C. mastersii
+ Pseudobulb not stemlike, generally less than 10 cm   (14)
14 (13) Lip with a purple-red V-shaped patch on mid-lobe.   23 C. changningense
+ Lip without a V-shaped patch on mid-lobe   (15)
15 (14) Inflorescence 1- or rarely 2(or 3)-flowered; petals 55-70 × 13-18 mm.   21 C. eburneum
+ Inflorescence 2-11(-15)-flowered; petals 46-52 × 8-12 mm.   22 C. maguanense
16 (12) Sepals and petals white or pinkish, sometimes tinged pale red-brown or cream-yellow   (17)
+ Sepals and petals green, olive-green, apple-green, yellowish green, or brown-yellow   (18)
17 (16) Inflorescence suberect, longer than or nearly as long as leaves; lateral sepals spreading horizontally or nearly so; petals spreading, never clasping column; lip mid-lobe ovate, apex acute.   19 C. insigne
+ Inflorescence arching to pendulous, usually shorter than leaves; lateral sepals pendulous or downcurved; petals clasping column; lip mid-lobe obovate to nearly oblate, apex obtuse to slightly emarginate.   20 C. wenshanense
18 (16) Mid-lobe of lip with a large, red to chestnut V-shaped patch; patch densely velvety hairy.   17 C. lowianum
+ Mid-lobe of lip with or without a V-shaped patch but patch never velvety hairy   (19)
19 (18) Mid-lobe of lip with 2 or 3 rows of long hairs running from middle of mid-lobe to apices of lamellae   (20)
+ Mid-lobe of lip without rows of long hairs   (22)
20 (19) Lip without a row of long hairs between 2 lamellae on disk.   12 C. iridioides
+ Lip with a row of long hairs between 2 lamellae on disk   (21)
21 (20) Flowers 13-14 cm in diam.; sepals and petals with distinct dark red-brown venation and spots; lip 45-60 mm, with dark red-brown marks and 3 rows of suberect hairs 5-6 mm on mid-lobe.   10 C. tracyanum
+ Flowers 7-8 cm in diam.; sepals and petals usually without red-brown venation, or, if present, indistinct and pale; lip 30-32 mm, without dark red-brown markings, with 3 rows of soft hairs 1-3 mm on mid-lobe.   11 C. gaoligongense
22 (19) Column purple-red at apex, with purple-red spots below; mid-lobe of lip yellow with many purple-red striations and irregular dashes.   13 C. sichuanicum
+ Column not tinged purple-red at apex; mid-lobe of lip without markings as above   (23)
23 (22) Sepals and petals green with heavy reddish brown longitudinal stripes and irregular spots.   14 C. erythraeum
+ Sepals and petals usually without striations and spots, or, if present, inconspicuous and pale red-brown   (24)
24 (23) Leaves somewhat oblanceolate, base contracted into a distinct petiole-like stalk.   29 C. baoshanense
+ Leaves lorate, not or indistinctly contracted at base   (25)
25 (24) Mid-lobe of lip with a large, V-shaped, chestnut patch not composed of spots or blotches.   18 C. schroederi
+ Mid-lobe of lip without or with a V-shaped patch composed of spots and blotches   (26)
26 (25) Sepals and petals green, without longitudinal reddish brown veins; mid-lobe of lip with chestnut spots and striations; lateral lobes with chestnut stripes composed of small spots.   15 C. hookerianum
+ Sepals and petals yellowish green, indistinctly with a few longitudinal reddish brown veins; mid-lobe of lip with a submarginal V-shaped reddish brown patch composed of dense spots and blotches along apical margin; lateral lobes with brown striations.   16 C. wilsonii
27 (8) Pollinia 2, each cleft   (28)
+ Pollinia 4, in 2 pairs   (35)
28 (27) Inflorescence erect to suberect, densely 15-50-flowered   (29)
+ Inflorescence usually arcuate to pendulous, laxly 5-35-flowered   (30)
29 (28) Leaves 0.8-1.8 cm wide, midvein usually raised more than 2 lateral veins on abaxial surface; column not auriculate at base.   7 C. floribundum
+ Leaves 2-3.5 cm wide, midvein not usually raised; column auriculate at base.   8 C. suavissimum
30 (28) Apices of sepals acute or acuminate, porrect   (31)
+ Apices of sepals usually obtuse, spreading or pendulous   (32)
31 (30) Dorsal sepal 42-48 mm, whitish or yellowish brownish with purple-brown veins.   6 C. aestivum
+ Dorsal sepal 14-33 mm, white with a central purple stripe.   5 C. dayanum
32 (30) Sepals 28-33 mm; lip white with 4 purple spots or short streaks on mid-lobe.   4 C. atropurpureum
+ Sepals and petals 14-23 mm; lip mid-lobe with longitudinal purple stripes, dense spots, or flushed purple   (33)
33 (32) Lip with longitudinal purple stripes on mid-lobe, lateral lobes acute, callus interrupted.   1 C. aloifolium
+ Lip densely spotted or flushed with purple, lateral lobes obtuse or rounded, callus ridges entire   (34)
34 (33) Leaves 2-4; sepals and petals dark purplish red or blackish purple, with yellow margins ca. 0.8 mm wide; fl. Oct-Nov.   3 C. paucifolium
+ Leaves 4-6; sepals and petals yellowish to whitish, with a central purplish red or maroon-brown longitudinal stripe 3-4 mm wide; fl. Mar-Apr.   2 C. mannii
35 (27) Leaves not articulate toward base   (36)
+ Leaves articulate toward base   (40)
36 (35) Lip unlobed or obscurely 3-lobed, disk without keels or lamellae.   44 C. teretipetiolatum
+ Lip distinctly 3-lobed, disk with keels or lamellae   (37)
37 (36) Plants with a many-noded, cylindric, usually shortly branched, subterranean rhizome usually more than ca. 1 cm in diam.; column 6-7 mm.   43 C. nanulum
+ Plants without a rhizome as above; column more than 10 mm   (38)
38 (37) Pseudobulbs inconspicuous; leaves with translucent veins; floral bracts ca. 1/2 as long as ovary.   42 C. faberi
+ Pseudobulbs conspicuous, 0.8-2 cm; leaves without translucent veins; floral bracts exceeding ovary   (39)
39 (38) Leaves 3-5, usually 23-38 cm; inflorescence usually 1-flowered; flower thickly textured; sepals 11-13 mm wide.   40 C. serratum
+ Leaves 5-7(-10), usually 40-65 cm; inflorescence 2-7-flowered; flowers thinly textured; sepals 8-9 mm wide.   41 C. tortisepalum
40 (35) Only terminal pseudobulb with leaves; leaves deciduous in winter.   34 C. defoliatum
+ Most of pseudobulbs with leaves; leaves persistent in winter   (41)
41 (40) Flowers 2-3 cm in diam.; sepals and petals to 17 mm; lip obscurely 3-lobed.   35 C. micranthum
+ Flowers 4-7 cm in diam.; sepals and petals 17 mm or longer; lip distinctly 3-lobed   (42)
42 (41) Leaves 9-13 or more, strongly distichous-equitant and with broad membranous margins 1-3 mm wide at base.   30 C. cyperifolium
+ Leaves 2-7(-10), base not strongly distichous-equitant, lacking broad membranous margins at base   (43)
43 (42) Inflorescence 1- or very rarely 2-flowered; floral bract exceeding ovary.   39 C. goeringii
+ Inflorescence 3- to many flowered; floral bracts shorter than or nearly as long as ovary   (44)
44 (43) Pseudobulbs inconspicuous; floral bracts nearly as long as ovary; plant flowering twice per year.   38 C. omeiense
+ Pseudobulbs conspicuous; floral bracts shorter than ovary; plant flowering once per year   (45)
45 (44) Floral bracts at middle part of inflorescence ca. as long as or more than 1/2 length of pedicel and ovary   (46)
+ Floral bracts at middle part of inflorescence shorter than 1/2 length of ovary   (47)
46 (45) Leaves usually slightly tinged purplish, base contracted into a long, filiform petiole-like stalk.   37 C. qiubeiense
+ Leaves not tinged purplish, not contracted at base into a petiole-like stalk.   36 C. kanran
47 (45) Leaves dark glossy green, (1.5-)2-3 cm wide, articulate 3.5-7 cm from base; inflorescence 10-20-flowered.   32 C. sinense
+ Leaves green, 1-1.5(-2.5) cm wide, articulate 2-4 cm from base; inflorescence 3-9(-13)-flowered   (48)
48 (47) Leaves 30-60 cm, margin sometimes serrate toward apex; lip mid-lobe ovate, with a few red spots, margin kinked.   31 C. ensifolium
+ Leaves 50-200 cm, usually lacking serrations along margin; lip mid-lobe triangular-elliptic, with transverse fine red spots, margin undulate, not kinked.   33 C. haematodes

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