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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 7 | Papaveraceae

17. Dactylicapnos Wallich, Tent. Fl. Napal. 2: 51. 1826.

紫金龙属 zi jin long shu

Authors: Mingli Zhang & Magnus Lidén

Herbs, scandent, perennial or annual, glabrous. Stems thin, 1-8 m, forming a sympodium of several shoots. Leaf blade ternately or pinnately compound; leaflets once to 3 × compound; apex of leaf transformed into a branched tendril (except in basalmost leaves). Inflorescences terminal (leaf-opposed), corymbose, pendent, 2-14-flowered; bracts linear, entire to fimbriate-dentate. Flowers with 2 planes of symmetry, cordate to oblong, 12-26 × 4-10 mm. Petals pale yellow to orange (often rubescent); apices of outer petals slightly bent outward, base pouchlike. Stamens 2 (i.e., filaments of each triplet completely fused); each stamen with a basal nectary extending into pouch of corresponding outer petal. Style persistent; stigma almost square, upper corners each with 1 small stigmatic papilla, basal corners each with 1 large papilla (small in Dactylicapnos burmanica). Capsule dehiscent with 2 valves with persistent replum (in D. scandens indehiscent and berrylike). Seeds several to many, carunculate.

Twelve species: Himalayas to W China; ten species (three endemic) in China.

Dactylicapnos ventii (Khánh) Lidén (Nordic J. Bot. 25: 35. 2008) is similar to D. grandifoliolata but has fruit lanceolate with thin walls and seeds evenly colliculate and slightly flattened. It is known from India (Sikkim) and might occur in Yadong, S Xizang.

1 Bracts and sepal margins fimbriate-dentate; plant a squashy annual; stems weak, sharply angular or winged (D. sect. Minicalcara (Khanh) Lidén)   (2)
+ Bracts entire, sepals subentire; leaves (tendril excepted) with 2 primary leaflets (rarely 4, but then opposite); plant a perennial; stems terete to sulcate, but not winged (D. sect. Dactylicapnos)   (5)
2 (1) Flowers sharply keeled, 8-13 mm wide; stems conspicuously winged-ridged.   7 D. roylei
+ Flowers not keeled, 4-6 mm wide; stems with narrow ridges   (3)
3 (2) Capsule constricted between seeds; seeds shiny, radially reticulate-striate; first flowers 1-2 m up stem.   8 D. torulosa
+ Capsule smooth; seeds smooth or densely echinulate; first flowers usually 0.1-1 m up stem   (4)
4 (3) Seeds echinulate; sinus between basal pouches to 1 mm deep.   9 D. lichiangensis
+ Seeds smooth; sinus between basal pouches ca. 2 mm deep.   10 D. leiosperma
5 (1) Primary leaflets 2, alternate; nectary even or tapering toward apex   (6)
+ Primary leaflets 2 or 4, opposite; nectary much thicker toward apex   (7)
6 (5) Capsule very fleshy, not dehiscing by regular valves; nectary sigmoid, even or apex shortly acute.   1 D. scandens
+ Capsule membranous with thin marginal wing, dehiscing with valves; nectary sharply geniculate, apex long and thin.   2 D. macrocapnos
7 (5) Primary leaflets bi- to triternate, each with 8-16 ultimate leaflets; seeds with small elaiosomes; fruit 3-6 × as long as wide   (8)
+ Primary leaflets each with 2-8 ultimate leaflets; seeds with large deeply dissected elaiosomes that keep them together in a clump after valves open; fruit 1.7-2.5 × as long as wide (longer in D. ventii)   (9)
8 (7) Most leaves with 2 pairs of lateral leaflets; stems 2-4 mm in diam.; nectary not T-shaped; stigma broader than long with large basal papillae; crests of inner petals overtopping apex by 2 mm.   3 D. schneideri
+ Leaves with 1 pair of lateral leaflets; stems 1-2 mm in diam.; nectary T- or Y-shaped; stigma longer than broad with small basal papillae; crests of inner petals overtopping apex by 4 mm.   4 D. burmanica
9 (7) Primary leaflets each with 4-8 obtuse to subacute ultimate leaflets; fruit with 15-30 seeds.   5 D. gaoligongshanensis
+ Primary leaflets each with 3-5 acute to subacute ultimate leaflets; fruit with 30-50 seeds   (10)
10 (10) Fruit thin-walled, lanceolate; seeds colliculate. ..... D. ventii (see note above)   (10)
+ Fruit thick-walled, broadly elliptic; seeds echinulate.   6 D. grandifoliolata

Lower Taxa


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