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9. Papaveraceae

罂粟科 ying su ke

Authors: Mingli Zhang, Zhiyun Su, Magnus Lidén & Christopher Grey-Wilson

Corydalis yunnanensis

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, annual, biennial, monocarpic perennial, perennial, or shrubby. Laticifers or elongated idioblasts present. Leaves alternate or in a basal rosette, rarely opposite or whorled, usually without stipules; leaf blade entire to compound. Inflorescences racemes, panicles, dichasia, pseudoumbels, or solitary flowers. Flowers actinomorphic, bisymmetric, or zygomorphic, always bisexual, usually 2-merous, rarely 3- or 4-merous. Calyx caducous, green or petaloid. Corolla choripetalous or quasi-sympetalous, very rarely absent. Anthers opening by slits. Ovary superior, syncarpous with 2 to several carpels; placentation parietal.

Forty genera and ca. 800 species: mainly in the N Hemisphere of both the Old and New Worlds, extending into Central and South America, a few in Africa; 19 genera (one endemic, two introduced) and 443 species (295 endemic, five introduced, one requiring verification) in China.

Many species are used medicinally due to the high content of alkaloids.

The two subfamilies recognized here are often treated as separate families.

Wu Chengyi, Chuang Hsuan & Su Ziyun. 1999. Papaveraceae. In: Wu Chengyi, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 32: 1-483, 541-545.


1 Laticifers present; sap watery or milky; sepals green, entire, enclosing corolla in bud, imbricate or (in Eschscholzia) fused into a caducous hood; corolla actinomorphic, with (0-)4-8 (rarely more) petals; petals all similar, flat, imbricate and crumpled in bud; stamens several with filiform filaments; nectaries absent   1 Papaveraceae subfam. Papaveroideae
+ Laticifers lacking; sap watery, but sometimes colored; sepals usually petaloid, not enclosing petals in bud; corolla bisymmetric or zygomorphic; petals 4 in 2 very dissimilar whorls, with wings, crests, and/or spurs, pairwise valvate in bud; androecium of 8 thecae distributed on 2, 4, or 6 "stamens" with broad hyaline filaments; nectaries usually present   2 Papaveraceae subfam. Fumarioideae

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