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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 7 | Papaveraceae

1. Papaveraceae subfam. PAPAVEROIDEAE

罂粟亚科 ying su ya ke

Authors: Mingli Zhang & Christopher Grey-Wilson

Herbs, annual, biennial, perennial, or shrubby, with milky or watery latex. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or pseudowhorled. Inflorescences solitary flowers, or racemes, corymbs, panicles, or umbels. Flowers actinomorphic. Sepals in 1 whorl of 2 or 3(or 4), free, caducous. Petals 4-10, occasionally more, in 2 whorls, usually caducous, rarely absent. Stamens many, free. Ovule anatropous to subcampylotropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate. Fruit syncarpous, multicarpellate, many seeded.

Twenty-three genera and ca. 230 species: mainly in the N Hemisphere, extending into Central and South America, a few in Africa; 12 genera (one endemic, two introduced) and 67 species (29 endemic, five introduced) in China.

1 Perianth 3-merous; pistils at least 3-carpellate.   1 Argemone
+ Perianth 2-merous or petals absent; pistils 2-carpellate, rarely more   (2)
2 (1) Flowers small, apetalous, in large panicles.   12 Macleaya
+ Flowers medium to large, with 4 petals or more   (3)
3 (2) Inflorescences usually corymbs or panicles; seeds cristately carunculate   (4)
+ Inflorescences simple or racemose; seeds without cristate caruncle   (7)
4 (3) Stems scapose; leaves all basal, blade cordate, margin repand.   11 Eomecon
+ Stems not scapose; leaves cauline and basal, blade not cordate, margin with teeth to pinnatifid   (5)
5 (4) Cauline leaves alternate; stems cymosely branched; fruit nearly moniliform.   10 Chelidonium
+ Leaves nearly opposite on stem apices; stems simple; fruit not moniliform   (6)
6 (5) Flowers bracteate; ovary shortly pubescent; capsules 2-4-valvate from apex to base.   8 Stylophorum
+ Flowers ebracteate; ovary glabrous; capsules 2-valvate from base to apex.   9 Hylomecon
7 (3) Pistils 3-carpellate to polycarpellate; inflorescence racemose or paniculate, flowers sometimes solitary   (8)
+ Pistils 2-carpellate (rarely 4-carpellate); flowers solitary, terminal   (9)
8 (7) Styles generally obvious, stigmas claviform or capitate, free or united, actinomorphic, decurrent; plant yellow lactiferous.   2 Meconopsis
+ Flowers astylous, stigmas actinomorphic, united into compressed or steepled disks; plant white lactiferous.   3 Papaver
9 (7) Petals purple or red; capsules (2-)4-valvate.   7 Roemeria
+ Petals yellow or orange, rarely red; capsules 2-valvate   (10)
10 (9) Anthers linear, longer than filaments; cauline leaves and basal leaves similar, blade ternate, polypinnately lobed, lobes linear.   4 Eschscholzia
+ Anthers not linear, shorter than filaments; basal leaves many, pinnatilobate or pinnatipartite, lobes with teeth and petiolules, cauline leaves fewer, obviously smaller than basal leaves, sessile   (11)
11 (10) Ovary 1-loculed; seeds ovoid and tessellate; plant frequently yellow lactiferous.   5 Dicranostigma
+ Ovary with 2 false locules caused by septas forming spongy cells; seeds ovoid, reniform, alveolate; plant orange- or red lactiferous.   6 Glaucium

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