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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 7 | Papaveraceae

2. Meconopsis Viguier, Hist. Nat. Pavots Argémones. 48. 1814.

绿绒蒿属 lü rong hao shu

Authors: Mingli Zhang & Christopher Grey-Wilson

Meconopsis integrifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, monocarpic or perennial, yellow lactiferous. Taproot distinct in monocarpic species, plump, extended or napiform thickened, accompanied by fibrous roots, or fibrous. Stems, when present, branched or not, bristly, setose, pubescent, or glabrous. Leaves cauline and basal or all basal and forming a rosette; rosette leaves persistent in winter or dying away to a resting bud or buds; blade entire, serrate, or pinnatifid to pinnate, glabrous to bristly; basal leaves and lower cauline leaves usually petiolate; upper cauline leaves shortly petiolate or sessile, sometimes amplexicaul. Inflorescence a raceme, panicle, or pseudoumbel, with uppermost flower opening first, or flowers solitary, then often on basal scapes. Flowers large, often bowl- or saucer-shaped. Sepals 2, very rarely 3 or 4 in terminal flowers, caducous. Petals 4-10, occasionally more, blue, purple, pink, red, or yellow, rarely white. Stamens numerous; filaments mostly linear, rarely dilated in lower part. Ovary nearly spherical, ovoid, or obovoid to narrowly terete, 1-loculed, with 3 or more carpels, containing numerous ovules; styles distinct, usually short, sometimes almost absent, regularly stout or basally expanding into a disk covering top of ovary; stigmas free or united, capitate or clavate. Capsule nearly spherical, ovoid, obovoid, or elliptic to cylindrical, spiny, setose, pubescent, or glabrous, 3-12(-18)-valvate; segments slightly lobed or divided to 1/3 length or more from apex to base. Seeds many, ovoid, reniform, falcate-oblong, or oblong, smooth or longitudinally concave, without a caruncle.

About 54 species: one in W Europe, the others in the Sino-Himalayan region; 43 species (23 endemic) in China.

The four species of Meconopsis sect. Discogyne G. Taylor (species nos. 40-43) are confined to S Xizang and the C and E Himalayan region. They are readily distinguished by the presence of a flat disk (a basal extension of the style), surmounting and overlapping the top of the ovary. All of the species form a dense rosette in the years before flowering, often with the dead leaf remains forming a thick felt beneath the living leaves. The inflorescence is a simple, often dense raceme, bracteate below, ebracteate above.

1 Styles abruptly expanded (ampliate) at base and disklike, covering top of ovary and often projecting beyond its edge (M. sect. Discogyne)   (2)
+ Styles equally thick or basally expanded, but never extended and disklike (M. sect. Meconopsis)   (5)
2 (1) Styles almost obsolete; petals sparsely setose outside.   43 M. torquata
+ Styles distinct, 3-7 mm; petals glabrous   (3)
3 (2) Stylar disk pentagonal in outline, shallowly lobed, not projecting beyond ovary edge; petals maroon; stigmas capitate; stem leafy up to inflorescence.   42 M. tibetica
+ Stylar disk sinuate, 8-angled, lobed or fringed at margin, projecting beyond ovary edge; petals pale yellow or bluish purple to deep purple, rarely red; stigmas clavate   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade pinnatipartite or pinnatilobate for full length; stems leafy (excluding leaflike bracts).   40 M. pinnatifolia
+ Leaf blade 3-5-toothed at apex, rarely subentire or entire.   41 M. discigera
5 (1) Leaves basal and cauline; inflorescence compound, cymose or racemose panicles or bracteate racemes   (6)
+ Leaves all basal, cauline leaves absent; flowers several, forming ebracteate racemes or simple on basal scapes   (27)
6 (5) Inflorescence branched, with many flowers in cymose or racemose panicles; petals 4, mostly yellow; leaf blade pinnate or pinnately lobed   (7)
+ Inflorescence simple; flowers forming bracteate racemes; petals 4-8, yellow, blue, or purple, rarely white; leaf blade entire or lobed   (11)
7 (6) Roots large, fibrous; inflorescences cymose panicles; herbaceous perennial   (8)
+ Taproot present, plump, extended or napiform; inflorescence paniculate, racemose toward top; plant monocarpic   (9)
8 (7) Ovary narrowly oblong or subterete, glabrous; capsules subterete.   1 M. oliveriana
+ Ovary elliptic, glabrous or very sparsely pilose; capsules elliptic.   2 M. chelidoniifolia
9 (7) Petals wine-red, wine-crimson, or purple.   5 M. wilsonii
+ Petals yellow   (10)
10 (9) Flowering stems early sparsely setose and later glabrous; capsules densely setose, slightly 4-7-valvate from apex; petals ca. 3 cm.   3 M. gracilipes
+ Flowering stems villous and densely barbellate-tomentose; capsules densely barbellate-tomentose and villous, slightly 6-12-valvate from apex; petals ca. 5 cm.   4 M. paniculata
11 (6) Roots fibrous, not swollen or tuberlike; stem base with persistent leaf bases, setose   (12)
+ Taproot radishlike; stem bases with or without persistent leaf bases, glabrous   (16)
12 (11) Cauline leaves alternate, blade trifoliolate.   6 M. smithiana
+ Uppermost cauline leaves in a whorl, pseudoverticillate, all leaves entire   (13)
13 (12) Flowers yellow   (14)
+ Flowers purple or blue   (15)
14 (13) Leaves 3-veined for at least 2/3 of their length; flowers ascending to erect at anthesis; stigmas sessile or almost so.   7 M. integrifolia
+ Leaves pinnately veined, sometimes 3-veined at base; flowers nodding to half-nodding at anthesis; styles present, at least 5 mm.   8 M. pseudointegrifolia
15 (13) Base of leaves truncate or cordate; flowers usually 3-6.   9 M. betonicifolia
+ Base of leaves cuneate; flowers usually 1-3.   10 M. grandis
16 (11) Plant with stiff spiny hairs (bristles)   (17)
+ Plant glabrous or pubescent   (21)
17 (16) Leaf blade pinnatipartite   (18)
+ Leaf blade entire to somewhat shallowly and irregularly lobed or toothed   (19)
18 (17) Styles broad; ovary densely rubiginous setose.   21 M. speciosa
+ Styles narrow; ovary with golden fulvous to stramineous prickles.   22 M. aculeata
19 (17) Leaves broad, irregularly toothed or lobed, glaucous, with dark base to sparse bristles; stigmas protruding, elongate.   19 M. rudis
+ Leaves narrow, not toothed nor glaucous, usually rather densely bristly, without dark base to rather dense bristles   (20)
20 (19) Capsule with spreading bristles; tall plant usually to 1 m tall in flower; stigmas included within boss of stamens, pale green or yellowish.   20 M. prattii
+ Capsule with appressed to ascending bristles; plant to 50 cm tall in flower; stigmas slightly protruding beyond boss of stamens, whitish.   18 M. racemosa
21 (16) Plant with large evergreen leaf rosettes in years before flowering   (22)
+ Plant with overwintering buds; leaves withering in autumn   (23)
22 (21) Flowers white; leaves entire.   11 M. superba
+ Flowers bluish violet; leaves pinnate to pinnatifid.   17 M. violacea
23 (21) Petals blue or purple   (24)
+ Petals white or yellow   (25)
24 (23) Flowers 1-5 from upper cauline axils, often only 1 open; capsules narrowly oblong or subterete.   14 M. lyrata
+ Flowers usually 3 from axillary pedicels, all open; capsules narrowly obovoid to narrowly elliptic.   15 M. primulina
25 (23) At least some leaves pinnate; petals white.   16 M. argemonantha
+ All leaves entire, sometimes toothed at margin; petals yellow   (26)
26 (25) Taproot narrow and elongate; capsules with spreading spines.   12 M. georgei
+ Taproot napiform; capsules glabrous or sparsely setose.   13 M. florindae
27 (5) Flowers several, forming ebracteate racemes; petals 4-8, blue or purple   (28)
+ Flowers solitary on basal scapes; petals 4-10, blue, purple, or red   (29)
28 (27) Flowers on upper flowering stems, without mixed basal scapes; capsules narrowly cylindrical; styles absent or nearly so.   23 M. forrestii
+ Flowers on upper and lower flowering stems, often with mixed basal scapes; capsules elliptic or narrowly obovoid; styles distinct.   24 M. lancifolia
29 (27) Fibrous roots fibriform; plant base with persistent leaf bases, setose   (30)
+ Taproot distinct   (32)
30 (29) Petals red; filaments straplike.   5 M. punicea
+ Petals blue or purple; filaments linear   (31)
31 (30) Capsule 2.5-5 cm, sparsely usually deflexed setose; flowers 5-8 cm in diam., with 5-8 petals; ovary narrowly elliptic or oblong-elliptic.   26 M. simplicifolia
+ Capsule 1.5-2.5 cm, densely appressed setose or glabrous; flowers 2.5-5 cm in diam., with 4-6 petals; ovary spheroidal, ovoid, or oblong.   27 M. quintuplinervia
32 (29) Filaments clearly dilated in proximal half   (33)
+ Filaments linear, not dilated   (34)
33 (32) Flowers broadly saucer-shaped, with spreading petals; petals unblotched at base.   28 M. henrici
+ Flowers deeply cup-shaped, with erect petals; petals dark blotched at base.   29 M. sinomaculata
34 (32) Leaf blade with firm spines or bristles, often densely so   (35)
+ Leaf blade glabrous on both surfaces, rarely somewhat setose or pubescent   (37)
35 (34) Plant dwarfish, ca. 9 cm tall; taproot broad, ca. 5 cm in diam.; leaf blade ovate or narrowly so, margin pinnately lobed.   37 M. pseudohorridula
+ Plant 15-20 cm tall; taproot plump and extended, 1-1.5 cm in diam.; leaf blade lanceolate, margin entire or undulate   (36)
36 (35) Plant with dense, sharp bristles; ovary conical, with appressed or inclined, firm spines.   38 M. horridula
+ Plant with stiff hairs; ovary elliptic to narrowly obovoid, adpressed setose.   39 M. impedita
37 (34) Plant perennial, with rootstock branched at apex, each branch terminating in a single leaf rosette and bearing 1 basal scape.   33 M. delavayi
+ Plant monocarpic, with simple rootstock terminating in a single leaf rosette bearing 1, several, or occasionally many scapes   (38)
38 (37) Leaf blades entire; plant with persistent, fibrous leaf bases   (39)
+ Leaf blades usually pinnately lobed, rarely entire on same plant, glabrous or almost so; plant with or without persistent fibrous leaf bases   (40)
39 (38) Petals normally 6, with a dark base, 4 cm or more; filaments ca. 15 mm; style ca. 4 mm.   30 M. barbiseta
+ Petals normally 4, without a dark base, 2-3 cm; filaments 6-8 mm; style 1.5-2 mm.   34 M. zangnanensis
40 (38) Basal scapes few, not more than 5; taproot napiform or shortly elongated; plant without persistent fibrous leaf bases   (41)
+ Basal scapes usually 8 or more; taproot stout and elongated; plant with persistent fibrous leaf bases   (42)
41 (40) Leaf blade pinnate or bipinnate, small, subfleshy; petals 1-1.5 cm.   31 M. concinna
+ Leaf blade lobed, large, thin; petals ca. 3 cm.   32 M. wumungensis
42 (40) Capsule ovoid to narrowly ellipsoid, 4-10 × longer than wide; petals usually more than 4.   35 M. pseudovenusta
+ Capsule narrowly oblong or subterete, scarcely 4 × longer than wide; petals 4.   36 M. venusta

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