2. Papaveraceae subfam. FUMARIOIDEAE
荷包牡丹亚科 he bao mu dan ya ke
Authors: Mingli Zhang, Zhiyun Su & Magnus Lidén
Herbs, perennial or annual, juicy, often glaucous, usually glabrous, sometimes with 1-celled hairs, rarely with crispate hairs. Cotyledons usually 2, but only 1 in most geophytic species. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or in a basal rosette, compound (simple in Corydalis ludlowii). Stipules absent or entire to fimbriate membranous appendages. Inflorescences bracteate, terminal (axillary in Adlumia), cymose or racemose. Flowers dimerous, bisymmetric or zygomorphic. Sepals 2, not completely enclosing petals in bud, green or usually petaloid, often slightly peltate, entire or dentate. Petals 4 in 2 dissimilar whorls, pairwise valvate in bud. Androecium of 8 thecae supplied by 6 vascular bundles, organized in 2, 4, or 6 "stamens" with rather broad and flat filaments, usually nectariferous at base; anthers opening by slits. Ovule campylotropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate. Fruit syncarpous, bicarpellate, 1- to many seeded. Seeds at dispersal with small embryo and copious endosperm. Base chromosome number = 8 (rarely 7).
Twenty genera and ca. 570 species: Africa and Asia outside of the tropics, Europe, North America; seven genera and 376 species (266 endemic, one requiring verification) in China.