32. Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski, Fl. URSS. 4: 697, 713. 1935.
掌裂兰属 zhang lie lan shu
Authors: Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale & Phillip J. Cribb
Coeloglossum Hartman; Dactylorchis (Klinge) Vermeulen; Orchis subg. Dactylorchis Klinge; Satyrium Linnaeus (1753), not Swartz (1800, nom. cons.).
Herbs, terrestrial, small to large, slender to robust. Tubers palmately lobed, fleshy, neck with several slender roots. Stem usually erect, terete, with tubular sheaths near base and several leaves above, glabrous. Leaves cauline, alternate, green, with purple spots or not spotted, glabrous, base attenuate into clasping sheath. Inflorescence erect, terminal, racemose; rachis densely several to many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate to ovate, foliaceous, often exceeding flowers. Flowers resupinate, secund or not, rose-purple, violet, yellow, greenish yellow, or rarely white, small to medium-sized; ovary twisted, cylindric-fusiform, glabrous. Sepals free, glabrous; dorsal sepal erect, often concave; lateral sepals spreading or reflexed, rarely connivent. Petals often connivent with dorsal sepal and forming a hood; lip simple, entire or 3- or 4-lobed, spurred at base; spur cylindric, conic, or saccate, much shorter than to subequal in length to ovary. Column stout; anther erect, base firmly adnate to apex of column, with 2 parallel or divergent locules; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, sectile, each attached to a viscidium by a slender caudicle; each viscidium enclosed in a sticky globe, both globes enclosed in a common bursicle formed by folding of rostellar arms; rostellum slightly protruding, with 2 arms; stigma lobes confluent, concave, beneath rostellum; auricles 2, usually prominent, on each side of column. Capsule erect.
About 50 species: mainly in Europe and Russia, extending east to Korea, Japan, and North America, and south to alpine areas of subtropical Asia and N Africa; six species in China.
Owing to the occurrence of both hybridization and polyploidy, specific relationships within Dactylorhiza are complex. Accordingly, the taxonomy of the genus is problematic, and nomenclature largely remains open to debate.
Several recent molecular studies have shown Dactylorhiza to be monophyletic only when re-circumscribed to include the monospecific genus Coeloglossum (Pridgeon et al., Lindleyana 12: 89-109. 1997; Bateman et al., Lindleyana 12: 113-141. 1997; Pillon et al., Biol. Conserv. 129: 4-13. 2006).
From observations of many fresh flowers of this genus in the field, we infer that the bursicle formed by the rostellar arms is solitary but later becomes separate.
Dactylorhiza salina (Turczaninow ex Lindley) Soó (Nom. Nov. Gen. Dactylorhiza, 4. 1962; Orchis salina Turczaninow ex Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 259. 1835) has been recorded from China (World Checklist of Monocotyledons, http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/). However, no material has been seen by the present authors.