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54. Dalbergia Linnaeus f., Suppl. Pl. 52, 316. 1782.

黄檀属 huang tan shu

Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; stipules often small and early caducous; leaflets alternate, rarely opposite, estipellate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes or panicles, usually numerous flowered; bracts and bracteoles usually small, caducous, rarely persistent. Flowers small. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed; teeth unequal, rarely subequal, lowest tooth usually largest, upper pair usually wider than others and partially connate. Corolla white, pale green, or rarely purple; petals clawed; standard ovate, oblong, or orbicular; wings with base cuneate, truncate, or sagittate; keel often boat-shaped, ± united above. Stamens 9 or 10, monadelphous, usually united in an open sheath, or diadelphous and then in 2 bundles of 5 each (5+5), or 9 united and 1 free (9+1); anthers erect, small, dehiscent by short apical slits. Ovary stipitate, few ovuled; style usually incurved, long or short; stigma terminal, small. Fruit an indehiscent legume, of 4 types: (a) strongly flattened, translucent, raised over seeds ("samaroid"); (b) thick­er, ± leathery, often with lenticels; (c) thick, ± woody; (b+c) when more than 1 seed develops, legume lomentaceous. Seeds reniform, compressed, those of legume types b, c, and b+c usually not visible from outside; radicle inflexed.

Between 100 and 120 species: tropical and subtropical regions of North and South America, Africa, and Asia; 29 species (14 endemic, one intro­duced) in China.

Due to insufficient data, Dalbergia tonkinensis (species no. 29) could not be included in the key.

Dalbergia esquirolii H. Léveillé (Fl. Kouy-Tchéou, 230. 1914-1915), described from Guizhou, could not be treated here because no material was seen by the present authors.


1 Stamens 10, filaments connate at base, irregularly separated to incompletely 3-5-adelphous on upper part; leaflets (7 or)9(or 11-13), ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-4 × 0.8-1.6 cm.   28 D. polyadelpha
+ Stamens 9 or 10, monadelphous or diadelphous   (2)
       
2 (1) Stamens 10, diadelphous (5+5)   (3)
+ Stamens 9, occasionally 10, monadelphous   (8)
       
3 (2) Leaflets numerous (13-21); stipules large, leaflike, ovate-lanceolate or falcate-lanceolate; inflorescence densely brown villous, pubescent, or silky pubescent   (4)
+ Leaflets fewer (7-17); stipules small, not leaflike; inflorescence sparsely puberulent   (6)
       
4 (3) Legume 2.5-5 × 0.6-1 cm; leaflets abaxially densely pubescent.   25 D. sericea
+ Legume 5-11 × 1.2-3.2 cm; leaflets sparsely appressed puberulent, gradually glabrous   (5)
       
5 (4) Length of leaflet blade nearly 3 × width; legume wider, apex obtuse or broadly cuneate, base rounded or broadly cuneate.   23 D. stipulacea
+ Length of leaflet blade 1.5-2 × width; legume narrower, apex acute, base attenuate to cuneate.   24 D. assamica
       
6 (3) Leaflets shortly acuminate, never emarginate at apex; standard obovate-oblong; corolla pink.   26 D. hainanensis
+ Leaflets rounded, obtuse, or slightly emarginate at apex; standard orbicular; corolla white or light purple   (7)
       
7 (6) Leaflet abaxial surface with finely reticulate veinlets; legume 16-23 mm wide.   11 D. volubilis
+ Leaflet abaxial surface without obvious reticulate veinlets; legume narrow, 13-15 mm wide.   27 D. hupeana
       
8 (2) Leaflets less than 2 cm, numerous, usually more than 21 (21-41) (except D. tsoi occasionally with 17)   (9)
+ Leaflets more than 2 cm (except D. hancei with leaflets 1-2 cm)   (14)
       
9 (8) Legume reddish brown when dry, strongly reticulate throughout; leaflets 17-27, elliptic to oblong.   1 D. tsoi
+ Legume not reddish brown, finely reticulate everywhere or opposite seeds; leaflets 21-42, linear-oblong or narrowly oblong, 2.5-3 × as long as wide   (10)
       
10 (9) Leaflets trapezoid-oblong, two sides of base asymmetric, one side rounded, other side cuneate; petals long clawed; inflorescence densely rusty puberulent; legume brown and shiny when dry.   2 D. pinnata
+ Leaflets symmetric at base (except D. millettii with leaflets slightly asymmetric); petals shortly clawed; inflorescence somewhat hairy or glabrous; legume dull colored, not shiny when dry   (11)
       
11 (10) Leaflets membranous, oblong, 8-15 mm, appressed brown silky pubescent on both surfaces; standard transversely elliptic.   3 D. peishaensis
+ Leaflets papery, linear-oblong or narrowly oblong, glabrous on both surfaces or hairy when young, glabrous when old; standard oblong-obovate, broadly obovate, or orbicular   (12)
       
12 (11) Leaflets 31-41, obtuse or rounded at both ends; legume ca. 7.5 mm wide.   4 D. stenophylla
+ Leaflets 21-35, truncate, emarginate at apex, cuneate or broadly cuneate at base; legume 10-20 mm wide   (13)
       
13 (12) Standard oblong-obovate; legume reticulate opposite seeds.   5 D. mimosoides
+ Standard orbicular; legume veined throughout.   6 D. millettii
       
14 (8) Leaflets 3-5   (15)
+ Leaflets 5-15   (16)
       
15 (14) Leaflets suborbicular or obcordate, length and width of blade subequal, apex rounded and shortly caudate, both surfaces glabrous and adaxially shiny when old; teeth of calyx unequal, lowest lanceolate, longer than others; legume faintly reticulate opposite seeds.   7 D. sissoo
+ Leaflets ovate, longer than wide, obtuse, slightly emarginate at apex, abaxially densely rusty pubescent; teeth of calyx subequal, triangular; legume distinctly reticulate throughout.   8 D. henryana
       
16 (14) Legume half-moon-shaped, less than 2.5 cm when 1-seeded; inflorescence subsessile; woody climbers growing in littoral region.   9 D. candenatensis
+ Legume oblong, ligulate-oblong, or strap-shaped, longer than 3 cm; inflorescence with peduncle; plants not of littoral region   (17)
       
17 (16) Teeth of calyx subequal in length, triangular, broadly triangular, ovate-triangular, or ovate   (18)
+ Teeth of calyx unequal in length, lowest teeth lanceolate or oblong (D. rimosa with lowest tooth of calyx lanceolate, but subequal in length to others)   (21)
       
18 (17) Standard not reflexed, obovate or elliptic; ovary shortly stipitate.   10 D. hancei
+ Standard reflexed, orbicular or elliptic; ovary long stipitate   (19)
       
19 (18) Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, 7-10 cm, apex acute.   12 D. kingiana
+ Leaflets ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 3.5-6 cm, apex obtuse, rounded, or emarginate   (20)
       
20 (19) Climbers; leaflets 5-7, base cuneate; standard elliptic, base shortly auriculate.   13 D. benthamii
+ Trees; leaflets 9-13, base rounded; standard orbicular, base not auriculate.   14 D. burmanica
       
21 (17) Leaflets less than 4 cm (1-4 × 0.8-2 cm; though sometimes larger and up to 5.5 cm in D. ximengensis)   (22)
+ Leaflets more than 4 cm (4-14 × 2-8 cm; though sometimes smaller and less than 4 cm in D. yunnanensis)   (25)
       
22 (21) Climbers or shrubs; standard oblong, obovate-oblong, or suborbicular   (23)
+ Trees; standard obovate or obcordate   (24)
       
23 (22) Large climbers; leaflets thinly leathery, glabrous, shiny adaxially, veinlets finely and closely reticulate, conspicuously prominent on both surfaces.   15 D. dyeriana
+ Shrubs; leaflets papery, appressed sparsely grayish white pubescent and veins slightly impressed adaxially.   16 D. jingxiensis
       
24 (22) Leaflets (7-)11-13, leathery, ovate-elliptic or oblong, adaxially glabrous, terminal and lateral leaflets subequal in length.   17 D. cultrata
+ Leaflets 7-9, thickly papery, elliptic or obovate, adaxially appressed pubescent, terminal and lateral leaflets very unequal in length (terminal leaflet often more than 4 × as large as lowest).   18 D. ximengensis
       
25 (21) Leaflets rounded at both ends, slightly emarginate at apex   (26)
+ Leaflets acuminate or acute at apex   (27)
       
26 (25) Leaflets 2.5-5(-7.5) × 1-2(-3.3) cm, length usually ca. 2 × width, both surfaces appressed puberulent, more densely so on midvein abaxially; standard obovate-oblong.   19 D. yunnanensis
+ Leaflets 5-14 × 4.5-8 cm, length and width subequal or length slightly exceeding width, both surfaces glabrous; standard oblong.   20 D. obtusifolia
       
27 (25) Leaflets glabrous on both surfaces; legume ± inconspicuously reticulate, reticulation distinctly prominent opposite seeds.   21 D. odorifera
+ Leaflets sparsely hairy; legume reticulate throughout, reticulation conspicuously and slightly prominent opposite seeds.   22 D. rimosa

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