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1. Diospyros Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1057. 1753.

柿树属 shi shu

Maba J. R. Forster & G. Forster.

Trees or shrubs, deciduous or evergreen. Terminal buds absent. Branchlet tips sometimes forming a spine. Leaves alternate, occasionally minutely translucent dotted or with gland pits. Flowers dioecious or polygamous. Male flowers in axillary cymes, usually on basal part of current year's branchlets, deciduous soon after anthesis; stamens 4 to numerous, often paired and forming 2 whorls; ovary rudimentary. Female flowers usually solitary, axillary; staminodes 1--16 or absent; stigma often 2-cleft. Calyx usually 3--5(--7)-lobed, sometimes truncate. Corolla urn-shaped, campanulate, or tubular, 3--5(--7)-lobed, deciduous. Berries fleshy to somewhat leathery, usually with an enlarged persistent calyx. Seeds 1--10(or more), often laterally compressed.

About 485 species: pantropical and extending into temperate regions; 60 species in China, most abundant in SE and SW China, several incompletely known and of uncertain status.

The following key is primarily to fruiting material because the flowers of many Chinese species are not known.


1 Branchlets usually tipped with slender inconspicuous spines; reticulate veins of leaves slender, slightly raised but never conspicuous.   (2)
+ Branches never spine-tipped; reticulate veins of leaves varying from flat to conspicuously raised.   (5)
       
2 (1) Leaf blade base shallowly cordate, less often rounded to truncate; corolla outside glabrous; berries black when mature, glabrous; fruiting sepals strongly recurved, hard and rigid, ca. 0.7 cm (difficult to measure), veins not visible   5 Diospyros diversilimba
+ Leaf blade base cuneate to attenuate, rarely subrounded; corolla outside hairy; berries ± yellow when mature, hairy at least at base of style; fruiting sepals spreading to slightly reflexed, stiffly papery to ± leathery, 0.9--2.5 cm, veins several and subparallel, prominent.   (3)
       
3 (2) Corolla outside not uniformly hairy but with longer hairs restricted to 4 ridges and sometimes with much smaller hairs adjacent; leaf blade rhomboid-obovate; short stout spines often present on branchlets   3 Diospyros rhombifolia
+ Corolla outside uniformly densely puberulent; leaf blade elliptic to narrowly elliptic, sometimes rhombic-oblanceolate to slightly oblong; short stout spines never present.   (4)
       
4 (3) Fruiting pedicel 2.4--4(--6) cm; corolla 5--7 mm; fruiting sepals (1--)1.2--2(--2.5) cm   1 Diospyros cathayensis
+ Fruiting pedicel 1.1--2 cm; corolla 4--5 mm; fruiting sepals 0.9--1.1 cm   2 Diospyros armata
       
5 (1) Leaf blades 2--6 cm, mostly less than 4 cm.   (6)
+ Leaf blades (at least some) more than 7 cm.   (16)
       
6 (5) Fruiting pedicel 8--11 mm.   (7)
+ Fruiting pedicel to 5 mm long, sometimes ± absent.   (8)
       
7 (6) Leaf blade abaxially without scattered concave glands, reticulate veins inconspicuous; calyx 4-lobed   6 Diospyros howii
+ Leaf blade abaxially with scattered concave glands, reticulate veins prominent; calyx 5-lobed   7 Diospyros oliviformis
       
8 (6) Leaf blade uniformly hairy.   (9)
+ Leaf blade glabrous except, sometimes when young, for pilose margin and abaxially puberulous midrib.   (12)
       
9 (8) Corolla glabrous (fruit not known); leaf apex clearly acuminate; petiole 6--10 mm, subglabrous   9 Diospyros esquirolii
+ Corolla outside with 4 distinct longitudinal lines of hairs; leaf apex not clearly acuminate; petiole 2--6 mm, hairy.   (10)
       
10 (9) Ovary densely yellow strigose; calyx lobes mostly less than half as long as corolla; leaf blade smooth; fruit pilose, glabrescent, apex mucronate; petiole 2--3(--5) mm   10 Diospyros dumetorum
+ Ovary glabrous except at apex; calyx lobes about as long as or longer than corolla; leaf blade very minutely rugulose-papillate; fruit glabrous, apex rounded; petiole (2--)4--15 mm.   (11)
       
11 (10) Petiole (5--)10--16 mm; female corolla tube shorter than corolla lobes; calyx lobes 3.5--5 mm wide   12 Diospyros balfouriana
+ Petiole (2--)4--6 mm; corolla tube longer than corolla lobes; calyx lobes 2--2.5 mm wide   11 Diospyros yunnanensis
       
12 (8) Leaf apex rounded; flowers irregularly 3--5-merous; calyx lobes rounded, ca. 1/2 as long as tube, erect; berries ellipsoid   60 Diospyros ferrea
+ Leaf apex subacute to bluntly acuminate; flowers regularly 4-merous; calyx lobes triangular to lanceolate, longer than tube; berries globose (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan).   (13)
       
13 (12) Leaves drying gray-green, margin often conspicuously ciliate-pilose when young   8 Diospyros vaccinioides
+ Leaves drying dark brown to ± blackish, margin never conspicuously hairy.   (14)
       
14 (13) Leaf blade very minutely rugulose-papillate, dull, lateral veins 4--6 per side   11 Diospyros yunnanensis
+ Leaf blade smooth, often glossy, lateral veins 6--18 per side.   (15)
       
15 (14) Lateral veins of leaves 12--18 per side; berries 1--1.2 cm   13 Diospyros nitida
+ Lateral veins of leaves 6--8 per side; berries 1.3--1.5 cm   14 Diospyros kotoensis
       
16 (5) Leaf blade abaxially with reticulate veinlets not raised but clearly defined, dark.   (17)
+ Leaf blade abaxially with reticulate veinlets inconspicuous or, if clearly defined, pale and/or raised.   (24)
       
17 (16) Calyx tube well developed, partly enclosing young fruit; leaf blade lateral veins 3 or 4 per side   22 Diospyros tsangii
+ Calyx deeply divided, never partly enclosing fruit; leaf blade lateral veins 5--10 per side.   (18)
       
18 (17) Leaf blade abaxially glaucous gray-green.   (19)
+ Leaf blade abaxially green to pale brown.   (21)
       
19 (18) Fruiting calyx lobes (4--)6--8 X ca. 6 mm; petiole 1.2--2.5 cm   19 Diospyros japonica
+ Fruiting calyx lobes 9--15 X 7--10 mm; petiole to 1.4 cm.   (20)
       
20 (19) Leaves glabrous; fruiting calyx lobes 12--15 X ca. 10 mm   20 Diospyros sichourensis
+ Leaves hairy; fruiting calyx lobes ca. 9 X 7 mm   21 Diospyros kintungensis
       
21 (18) Berries 1--2 cm in diam., bluish black with a glaucous bloom when ripe   18 Diospyros lotus
+ Berries 2--8.5 cm in diam., yellow, orange, or red when ripe.   (22)
       
22 (21) Leaves abaxially glabrous or with very scattered pubescence; calyx much shorter than corolla; fruiting calyx ca. 1.4 cm in diam.   23 Diospyros oldhamii
+ Leaves abaxially hairy, sometimes adaxially glabrescent; calyx ± as long as corolla; fruiting calyx 3--4 cm in diam.   (23)
       
23 (22) Young branchlets, leaves, and calyx outside brown pubescent, often glabrescent; petiole 8--20 mm; leaf blade with 5--7 pairs of lateral veins   24 Diospyros kaki
+ Young branchlets, leaves, and calyx outside densely grayish-yellow pubescent; petiole 6--10 mm; leaf blade with 7--9 pairs of lateral veins   25 Diospyros oleifera
       
24 (16) Branchlets with hairs ± overlapping and concealing much of epidermis.   (25)
+ Branchlets glabrous to inconspicuously pubescent.   (44)
       
25 (24) Fruiting calyx tube inflated, baglike, and almost or entirely covering fruit, lobes short and inconspicuous, incurved   59 Diospyros inflata
+ Fruiting calyx tube much shorter than fruit, lobes well-developed, erect, spreading or recurved to reflexed or calyx with conspicuous spreading undulately plicate limb.   (26)
       
26 (25) Berries to 2.5 cm in diam.   (27)
+ Berries 2.5 cm or more in diam.   (35)
       
27 (26) Leaf blade abaxially with numerous minute spherical glands between reticulate veinlets   45 Diospyros punctilimba
+ Leaf blade without such glands between reticulate veinlets, rarely occasional glandular pits at junctions of veinlets.   (28)
       
28 (27) Young shoots pubescent or puberulous.   (29)
+ Young shoots rusty strigose, yellowish brown, or brown tomentose.   (31)
       
29 (28) Lateral veins 4--6 per side; fruiting pedicel 3--4 mm   17 Diospyros unisemina
+ Lateral veins 5--7(--10) per side; fruiting pedicel ca. 10 mm.   (30)
       
30 (29) Leaf blade subelliptic-rhombic; berries globose, densely pubescent   4 Diospyros saxicola
+ Leaf blade elliptic-rhombic, elliptic-oblong, or oblanceolate; berries ovoid, glabrescent   6 Diospyros howii
       
31 (28) Flowers and young fruit subtended by ovate bracts as long or longer than calyx tube; fruit globose to ovoid, 0.5--1(--1.5) cm wide, sessile; leaves abaxially drying grayish, brown, or blackish.   (32)
+ Flowers and fruit not subtended by prominent bracts; fruit globose, (0.8--)1.8--2.5 cm wide, pedicellate; leaves drying gray-green.   (33)
       
32 (31) Leaf base rounded to cuneate, lateral veins 4--7 or 8 per side   46 Diospyros eriantha
+ Leaf base truncate to cordate, lateral veins 7--10 per side   47 Diospyros strigosa
       
33 (31) Leaf blade lateral veins 10--15 per side; inflorescences always 1-flowered; fruiting pedicel 1--1.6 cm   51 Diospyros xishuangbannaensis
+ Leaf blade lateral veins 4--10 per side; inflorescences usually 2- or more flowered; fruiting pedicel ca. 0.4 cm.   (34)
       
34 (33) Leaf blade lateral veins 4--6 per side, densely appressed yellowish brown pubescent when young, adaxially glabrescent; pedicel and calyx indumentum similar in color to stem indumentum   48 Diospyros xiangguiensis
+ Leaf blade lateral veins 7--10 per side, glabrescent except for midrib which is densely rusty strigose; pedicel and calyx indumentum distinctly paler than stem indumentum, often grayish   49 Diospyros kerrii
       
35 (26) Winter buds and young shoots with prominent dark brown to almost black hairs   54 Diospyros hainanensis
+ Winter buds and young shoots with pale or yellow to reddish brown hairs.   (36)
       
36 (35) Fruiting pedicel to 6(--10) mm.   (37)
+ Fruiting pedicel more than 8 mm.   (39)
       
37 (36) Leaf blade lateral veins 4--7 per side; fruiting calyx lobes flat, appressed to berry and overlapping   53 Diospyros chunii
+ Leaf blade lateral veins (6 or)7--14 per side; fruiting calyx lobes with recurved to strongly reflexed margins, not overlapping.   (38)
       
38 (37) Leaf blade abaxially with small but sharply delimited sunken glands scattered along leaf blade between lateral veins and 3--12 mm from midrib, lateral veins 10--14 per side; berries ca. 8 cm in diam., densely and persistently villose   52 Diospyros philippensis
+ Leaf blade without sunken glands, lateral veins (6 or)7--10 per side; berries 3--3.5 cm in diam., glabrescent   55 Diospyros ehretioides
       
39 (36) Fruiting calyx 5- or 6-lobed   26 Diospyros hexamera
+ Fruiting calyx 4-lobed.   (40)
       
40 (39) Lobes of fruiting calyx unequal, 2 broad lobes alternating with 2 narrow lobes   57 Diospyros anisocalyx
+ Lobes of fruiting calyx equal.   (41)
       
41 (40) Fruiting pedicel 3--4 cm   39 Diospyros miaoshanica
+ Fruiting pedicel 1.2--2 cm.   (42)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade glabrous except for abaxially tawny puberulous midvein and lateral veins   36a var. reticulinervis
+ Leaf blade abaxially tawny pilose or sparsely strigose on midvein.   (43)
       
43 (42) Young shoots yellow pubescent; leaf blade abaxially tawny pilose, densely so on veins; lobes of fruiting calyx outside slightly pilose, inside glabrous   37 Diospyros sunyiensis
+ Young shoots puberulous; leaf blade abaxially sparsely strigose on midvein; lobes of fruiting calyx glabrous on both surfaces   38 Diospyros sutchuensis
       
44 (24) Seeds 1.5--3.5 cm; reticulate veinlets of leaf blades always conspicuous, raised on both surfaces (Guangxi or Hainan).   (45)
+ Seeds to 1.6 cm; reticulate veinlets of leaf blades varying from almost invisible to very prominently raised (widely distributed).   (47)
       
45 (44) Fruiting calyx ca. 2 cm wide, clearly reflexed between lobes only; seeds 1.5--2 cm; petioles blackish in contrast to green leaf blades, inconspicuously articulate at base   30 Diospyros susarticulata
+ Fruiting calyx 2.5--3.5 cm wide, flat or with reflexed lobes; seeds 2--3.5 cm; petioles similar in color to leaf blades, not articulate at base.   (46)
       
46 (45) Fruiting calyx reflexed, ca 2.5 cm in diam., lobes clearly defined; berries longer than broad; seeds 3--3.5 X 0.8--0.9 cm; petiole 0.5--1 cm   31 Diospyros maclurei
+ Fruiting calyx a fleshy slightly reflexed undulate disc, 2.5--3.5 cm in diam., lobes inconspicuous; berries broader than long; seeds 2--2.5 X 9--1.5 cm; petiole 1--1.5 cm   32 Diospyros metcalfii
       
47 (44) Leaf blade abaxially with 2--4 small but sharply delimited sunken gland patches close to base; fruiting calyx lobes 4, sharply reflexed so as to be ± transversely folded when dry; corolla 3- or 4-lobed   58 Diospyros maritima
+ Leaf blade with gland patches absent or more than 4 and scattered throughout leaf; fruiting calyx lobes 4 or 5, subrevolute, often ± undulately plicate, never transversely folded; corolla 4-lobed.   (48)
       
48 (47) Calyx often 5-or more lobed, lobes sometimes reduced to small teeth; fruiting calyx very shallowly divided and reflexed between lobes so as to be undulately plicate, often strongly longitudinally 4- or 5-ridged at base.   (49)
+ Calyx always clearly 4-lobed, usually deeply divided; fruiting calyx usually deeply divided, not reflexed between lobes though lobes sometimes revolute or reflexed.   (52)
       
49 (48) Reticulate veinlets of leaf blades well-defined, dense, prominently raised on both surfaces   29 Diospyros longibracteata
+ Reticulate veinlets of leaf blades inconspicuous, lax, flat or sometimes abaxially slightly raised.   (50)
       
50 (49) Branchlets at first yellowish green; fruiting calyx only slightly undulately plicate, slightly reflexed between spreading lobes; male flowers not known   33 Diospyros corallina
+ Branchlets brown or blackish brown; fruiting calyx strongly undulately plicate, clearly reflexed between lobes; male flowers tubular or cup-shaped, calyx lobes reduced to small teeth.   (51)
       
51 (50) Male calyx tubular, 4- or 5-mucronate-dentate; stamens ca. 12; leaf blade lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate; berries black when mature, depressed globose, 2.5--3 cm in diam., glabrous, glossy   27 Diospyros nigricortex
+ Male calyx cup-shaped, 5--7-denticulate; stamens ca. 24; leaf blade elliptic to oblong; mature fruit not known   28 Diospyros forrestii
       
52 (48) Fruiting calyx ± square, lobes flat; leaves adaxially drying brown, reticulate veinlets very inconspicuous.   (53)
+ Fruiting calyx variously lobed, lobes recurved, strongly reflexed, or revolute; leaves drying gray-green to ± black or, if adaxially ± brownish, reticulate veinlets conspicuously raised.   (54)
       
53 (52) Mature fruit 1.5--2.2(--2.9) cm diam. (widespread in south China)   15 Diospyros morrisiana
+ Mature fruit 2.5--3 cm diam. (Yunnan, Marlipo Xian)   16 Diospyros fengii
       
54 (52) Leaf blade hairy between lateral veins on one or both surfaces.   (55)
+ Leaf blade glabrous except sometimes for abaxially appressed villose main veins or appressed pubescence when young.   (57)
       
55 (54) Fruit base glabrous   12 Diospyros balfouriana
+ Fruit base densely appressed yellowish tomentose.   (56)
       
56 (55) Fruiting calyx lobes ca. 2 cm, broadly ovate   43 Diospyros zhenfengensis
+ Fruiting calyx lobes ca. 0.8 cm, narrowly triangular   36b var. glabrescens
       
57 (54) Berries glabrous or hairy only at apex; leaves drying blackish.   (58)
+ Berries hairy at least at base when young, sometimes glabrescent; leaves not drying blackish.   (59)
       
58 (57) Lateral veins of leaves 12--18 per side; berries 1--1.2 cm   13 Diospyros nitida
+ Lateral veins of leaves 6--8 per side; berries 1.3--1.5 cm   14 Diospyros kotoensis
       
59 (57) Berries sessile or subsessile, always globose.   (60)
+ Berries with pedicel 5 mm or more, globose or ovoid.   (61)
       
60 (59) Leaf blade lateral veins 10--13 per side; fruiting calyx lobes spreading, inside brown sericeous; fruit 2--2.8 cm in diam.   34 Diospyros siderophylla
+ Leaf blade lateral veins 6--8 per side; fruiting calyx lobes strongly recurved, conspicuously tomentose on both surfaces; fruit 1--1.5 cm in diam.   56 Diospyros rubra
       
61 (59) Leaf blade lateral veins 5 or 6 per side   40 Diospyros tutcheri
+ Leaf blade lateral veins 7--12 per side.   (62)
       
62 (61) Berries densely black pubescent at base; fruiting calyx sparsely black pubescent   50 Diospyros hasseltii
+ Berries appressed rusty or yellowish brown hairy, glabrescent when ripe; fruiting calyx puberulous.   (63)
       
63 (62) Fruiting pedicel 0.5--1 cm; reticulate veinlets of leaf blade thick, dense, conspicuously pale and raised on adaxial surface   35 Diospyros caloneura
+ Fruiting pedicel 1.1--2.5 cm; reticulate veinlets of leaf blade slender, often lax.   (64)
       
64 (63) Leaf blade stiffly papery, lateral veins not united to form a marginal vein; fruit ovoid   41 Diospyros potingensis
+ Leaf blade nearly leathery, lateral veins (at least apical ones) united to form a marginal vein; fruit globose or depressed globose.   (65)
       
65 (64) Fruiting pedicel 3.3--4.7 cm   44 Diospyros longshengensis
+ Fruiting pedicel 0.5--2.5 cm.   (66)
       
66 (65) Leaf base broadly cuneate, lateral veins 9 per side; fruit globose, ca. 3 cm in diam.   42 Diospyros fanjingshanica
+ Leaf base rounded, lateral veins 10--12 per side; fruit depressed globose, ca. 2.6 cm in diam.   43 Diospyros zhenfengensis

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