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18. Eleutherococcus Maximowicz, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans. 9 [Prim. Fl. Amur.]: 132. 1859.

五加属 wu jia shu

Acanthopanax (Decaisne & Planchon) Miquel; Panax subg. Acanthopanax Decaisne & Planchon.

Shrubs, erect or scandent, rarely small trees, hermaphroditic or andromonoecious, glabrous or pubescent, usually prickly, occasionally unarmed. Leaves palmately compound or trifoliolate; stipules absent or very weakly developed. Inflorescence a terminal (rarely axillary) panicle of umbels or a solitary umbel, secondary axes with a terminal umbel of bisexual flowers and 1 to many lateral umbels of later flowering bisexual or functionally male flowers. Pedicels not articulate or only slightly articulate below ovary. Calyx margin entire or with 5 minute teeth. Petals 5, valvate. Stamens 5. Ovary 2-5-carpellate; styles 2-5, free to base, or partially to fully united. Fruit a drupe, laterally compressed or subglobose. Seeds laterally compressed; endosperm smooth.

Nearly 40 species: E Asia, Himalayan region; 18 species (14 endemic) in China.

1 Umbels 1(-3), borne in axils of leaves on short shoots   (2)
+ Umbels 1 to many, terminal on leafy shoots   (3)
2 (1) Ovary (4 or)5-carpellate, styles united, forming a column; branches with dense bristles along with prickles at base of petiole.   1 E. setulosus
+ Ovary 2(or 3)-carpellate, styles free nearly to base; branches with few reflexed prickles or rarely unarmed.   2 E. nodiflorus
3 (1) Styles united throughout their entire length, forming a column, stigmas sometimes forming a peltate to slightly recurved disk   (4)
+ Styles free at least apically, with distinct arms   (9)
4 (3) Flowers sessile, arranged in heads.   3 E. sessiliflorus
+ Flowers distinctly pedicellate, arranged in umbels   (5)
5 (4) Leaves near ends of branches sessile or very shortly petiolate, leaflets obovate-oblong to rhombic, 3-6 × 1-2.5 cm, margin entire, apex rounded to obtuse.   4 E. brachypus
+ Leaves with a distinct petiole at least 3-7 cm, leaflets variable in shape and size, margin serrate or biserrate, apex variable   (6)
6 (5) Prickles stout, compressed in cross-section, oriented downward (sometimes lacking on specimens).   5 E. henryi
+ Prickles slender, terete in cross-section, oriented in various directions   (7)
7 (6) Flowers purple-yellow; branches with slender bristlelike prickles, often present between nodes; petiolule of central leaflet (0.6-)1.2-2 cm.   6 E. senticosus
+ Flowers yellow-green; branches with few prickles, generally present only at nodes, sometimes lacking; petiolule of central leaflet 0.3-1 cm   (8)
8 (7) Leaflets 6-14 × 2.5-6 cm; ovary glabrous.   7 E. leucorrhizus
+ Leaflets 4-7 × 1-2.5 cm; ovary pubescent at base when very young   8 E. baoxinensis
9 (3) Inflorescence verticillate, primary axis with a terminal umbel and almost always 1 to several verticils of flowers, and also often with several flowers borne individually at base.   9 E. verticillatus
+ Inflorescence a solitary umbel or panicle of umbels, flowers never arranged in verticils   (10)
10 (9) Styles free to base or nearly so   (11)
+ Styles united at least at base   (12)
11 (10) Branches usually pubescent when young and with prickles; peduncles and pedicels pubescent.   10 E. cissifolius
+ Branches glabrous and unarmed; peduncles and pedicels glabrous.   11 E. eleutheristylus
12 (10) Ovary (3-)5-carpellate, styles (3-)5; leaflets (3-)5   (13)
+ Ovary 2-carpellate, styles 2; leaflets usually 3   (15)
13 (12) Branches with dense bristlelike prickles.   12 E. giraldii
+ Branches with slender prickles scattered or only on nodes   (14)
14 (13) Young branches purple-red; styles united only at base.   13 E. wilsonii
+ Young branches brownish; styles united to middle.   14 E. rehderianus
15 (12) Calyx and bractlets subtending pedicels white to gray woolly tomentose.   15 E. lasiogyne
+ Calyx and bractlets subtending pedicels glabrous   (16)
16 (15) Branches unarmed; leaflets membranous.   16 E. scandens
+ Branches usually with at least some prickles; leaves papery   (17)
17 (16) Leaflets adaxially glabrous or slightly setose on veins; margins serrulate   17 E. trifoliatus
+ Leaflets adaxially ± densely setose on veins; margins setose-biserrulate   18 E. setosus

  • List of lower taxa


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  • Eleutherococcus.pdf
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    Photos by The Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains Project  
  • Image File (Susan Kelley)
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  • Image File (Susan Kelley)
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