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89. Eulophia R. Brown, Bot. Reg. 7: ad t. 573 ["578"]. 1821.

美冠兰属 mei guan lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Phillip J. Cribb & Stephan W. Gale

Cyrtopera Lindley; Donacopsis Gagnepain; Lissochilus R. Brown; Semiphajus Gagnepain, p.p.

Herbs, terrestrial, autotrophic or rarely heteromycotrophic. Pseudobulbs subterranean or borne above ground, cormlike, tuberous, or rhizomatous, usually several noded, with several slender or thick fibrous roots at base. Leaves appearing at or after anthesis, 1 to many, basal, base tapering or contracted into a long petiole-like stalk, reduced to scales in heteromycotrophic species; petiole-like leaf base sometimes overlapping and forming a pseudostem. Inflorescence erect, lateral, racemose or rarely paniculate, laxly to subdensely many flowered or occasionally reduced to a solitary flower. Flowers resupinate, small to large, sometimes showy; pedicel and ovary slender. Sepals free, similar; lateral sepals usually slightly oblique, sometimes adnate to column foot. Petals similar to dorsal sepal or slightly wider; lip ± erect, usually 3-lobed, lateral lobes erect and embracing column, rarely entire, base usually spurred or saccate; disk usually with a callus consisting of lamellae, ridges, or fringes. Column short to long, usually winged; column foot present or less commonly absent; anther terminal, incompletely 2-locular, anther cap often with 2 projections; pollinia 2, ± cleft, waxy, attached to a suborbicular viscidium by a short, broad stipe.

About 200 species: tropical and subtropical regions, most diverse in Africa, but also widespread from Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands to C and tropical Asia, the SW Pacific islands, and N and NW Australia; 13 species (two endemic) in China.

1 Plants leafless at anthesis or heteromycotrophic and lacking leaves altogether   (2)
+ Plants with leaves present at anthesis   (7)
2 (1) Flowers lemon-yellow; lip 25-30 mm.   6 E. flava
+ Flowers purple-red, brownish yellow, green, purple, maroon, or pink; lip 9-15 mm   (3)
3 (2) Column with a prominent column foot 3-5 mm   (4)
+ Column lacking a column foot, or if present ca. 1 mm   (5)
4 (3) Plants heteromycotrophic, lacking green leaves; sepals dull purple-red to brownish yellow; spur conic, ca. 2 mm.   1 E. zollingeri
+ Plants autotrophic, with green leaves; sepals pale green with purple veins; spur saccate, ca. 4 mm.   2 E. bicallosa
5 (3) Plants 40-80 cm tall; pseudobulb borne above ground; inflorescence occasionally branched and paniculate; lip 4-5 mm wide, 3-lobed at or below middle.   5 E. graminea
+ Plants 15-45 cm tall; pseudobulb subterranean; inflorescence always racemose, never paniculate; lip 6.5-12 mm wide, 3-lobed above middle   (6)
6 (5) Leaves 3-5 cm wide; sepals ca. 2 mm wide.   3 E. dentata
+ Leaves 0.4-0.8 cm wide; sepals 3-5 mm wide.   4 E. dabia
7 (1) Flower solitary.   7 E. monantha
+ Flowers 3 or more   (8)
8 (7) Leaves to 1 cm wide   (9)
+ Leaves 2-7 cm wide   (10)
9 (8) Flowers olive-green; lip 9-10 mm; spur 3-3.5 mm.   5 E. graminea
+ Flowers purplish red; lip 20-23 mm; spur 7-8 mm.   12 E. siamensis
10 (8) Flowers purplish red; spur 6-9 mm.   13 E. spectabilis
+ Flowers yellow, yellowish green, or green; spur absent or 1.5-5 mm   (11)
11 (10) Floral bracts 20-50 mm, exceeding ovary   (12)
+ Floral bracts 6-9 mm, shorter than ovary   (13)
12 (11) Plants 25-50 cm tall; sepals 4-5 mm wide; spur 1.5-3 mm.   9 E. herbacea
+ Plants 45-80 cm tall; sepals 8-9 mm wide; spur ca. 5 mm.   10 E. bracteosa
13 (11) Leaves 3-7 cm wide, petiole-like stalk 8-15 cm; rachis more than 10-flowered; flowers pale green with purple or red spots and blotches; column 4-4.5 mm.   8 E. pulchra
+ Leaves ca. 2 cm wide, petiole-like stalk ca. 50 cm; rachis up to 10-flowered; flowers yellow; column ca. 7 mm.   11 E. sooi

  • List of lower taxa


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