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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 24 | Liliaceae

31. Hemerocallis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 324. 1753.

萱草属 xuan cao shu

Chen Xinqi (陈心启 Chen Sing-chi); Junko Noguchi1

Herbs perennial, with short rhizomes. Roots fleshy or ropelike, usually with globose, fusiform, or oblong, swollen, tuberous part. Leaves basal, distichous, sessile, basally equitant, linear. Scape erect or ascending, sometimes hollow, glabrous; main axis usually distinct, sometimes few or several branched and indistinct; sterile bracts sometimes present. Inflorescences terminating in single or double helicoidal cymes; cymes 1--6(or more)-flowered, rarely capitate and 1--6-flowered. Pedicel short, bracteate, basal pedicel sometimes concaulescent. Flowers fairly large, hypogynous, of short duration. Perianth funnelform, 3-merous; segments 6, petaloid, basally connate into a cylindric tube, often recurved apically, pale lemon yellow to orange or reddish orange, sometimes with a purple or rose, V-shaped patch, all segments similar or inner ones slightly wider than outer. Stamens 6, inserted in perianth tube; filaments free, slightly upcurved-reflexed, slender, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed, yellow or purplish black. Ovary 3-loculed. Style erect, rather long, slender; stigma capitate, small. Fruit a capsule, obtusely trigonous, transversely rugose, loculicidal. Seeds in 2 rows in each valve, black.

About 15 species: E Asia, with Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus extending to C Europe; eleven species (four endemic) in China.

In China many species are cultivated as ornamentals and a few for their edible flowers.

1 Flower opening in afternoon or evening, fragrant, tepals lemon yellow.   (2)
+ Flower opening in morning, slightly fragrant or unscented, tepals golden yellow or orange to reddish orange.   (4)
2 (1) Inflorescence simple; roots without swollen, tuberous part; anthers ca. 5 mm   3 Hemerocallis minor
+ Inflorescence branched; roots with swollen, tuberous part; anthers 8--10 mm.   (3)
3 (2) Scape with distinct main axis; perianth tube 1.5--3 cm; filaments 5--5.5 cm; roots fusiform   2 Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus
+ Scape without distinct main axis; perianth tube 3--5 cm; filaments 7--8 cm; roots with swollen, tuberous part near tip   1 Hemerocallis citrina
4 (1) Flower opening in morning and lasting ca. 24 hours, slightly fragrant; bracts overlapping, ovate to ovate-lanceolate or oblong-ovate, mostly 0.8--3 cm wide.   (5)
+ Flower opening in morning and lasting ca. 12 hours, unscented; bracts lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes scalelike, (0.2--)0.3--0.7(--1) cm wide.   (7)
5 (4) Inflorescence an apparently simple cyme; flower opening in very early morning; scape ascending; leaves 40--45 × 1.5--2 cm   9 Hemerocallis dumortieri
+ Inflorescence clearly forked or capitate; flower opening in early morning; scape erect; leaves 35--80 × (0.6--)1--1.8 cm.   (6)
6 (5) Inflorescence clearly forked with a pair of racemelike, helicoidal cymes; bracts oblong-lanceolate; roots with swollen, tuberous tip ca. 10 mm thick   10 Hemerocallis esculenta
+ Inflorescence capitate with rachis and flower bases concealed by bracts; bracts ovate-cordate; roots uniformly wide, to 3 mm thick   11 Hemerocallis middendorffii
7 (4) Inflorescence simple, 1- or 2-flowered; plants to 35 cm tall   8 Hemerocallis nana
+ Inflorescence forked or branched, more than 2-flowered; plants 40--150 cm tall.   (8)
8 (7) Inflorescence forked with a pair of racemelike, helicoidal cymes; perianth segments orange to reddish orange, inner ones usually with purple or reddish orange patches at middle   5 Hemerocallis fulva
+ Inflorescence usually branched; perianth segments orange to golden yellow, uniformly colored.   (9)
9 (8) Flower slightly fragrant, purplish black apically in bud; inflorescence many branched, with up to 100 flowers; perianth tube 2.5--3 cm   4 Hemerocallis multiflora
+ Flower unscented, green or reddish brown apically in bud; inflorescence with up to 20 flowers; perianth tube 1--2.5 cm.   (10)
10 (9) Scape with distinct main axis; roots with large, globose, swollen, tuberous part; anthers 6--8 mm; leaves 10--20 mm wide   6 Hemerocallis forrestii
+ Scape without distinct main axis; roots with large, oblong, swollen, tuberous part; anthers 3--4 mm; leaves 6--8 mm wide   7 Hemerocallis plicata

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