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12. Liliaceae A. L. Jussieu

百合科 bai he ke

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Prof. Song-Yun Liang, Jie-mei Xu, David E. Boufford, Michael G. Gilbert, Rudolf V. Kamelin, Shoichi Kawano, Tetsuo Koyama, Elena V. Mordak, Junko Noguchi, Victor G. Soukup, Hiroshi Takahashi, Kamilla G. Tamanian, Minoru N. Tamura & Nicholas J. Turland

Cordyline fruticosa
Image

Credit: B. Hammel

Herbs perennial, with a rhizome, bulb, or corm, rarely shrubby or treelike. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, parallel or rarely reticulate veined. Inflorescence a raceme, panicle, spike, umbel, reduced panicle, or other, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic; bracts present or absent; bracteoles present or absent. Perianth usually corollalike, 6-merous, rarely 4- or 8-merous, in 2 whorls; segments free (tepals) or united. Stamens 6, rarely 3, 4, or 8, inserted opposite perianth segments; filaments free or adnate to perianth, rarely connate into a corona; anthers usually 2-loculed, basifixed or dorsifixed and versatile, introrse, latrorse, or extrorse, dehiscing usually by vertical slits. Carpels usually connate for most or all of their length, rarely only at base; ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, 3-loculed, rarely 2- or 4-loculed, with axile placentae, or rarely 1-loculed with a parietal placenta; ovules usually anatropous. Nectaries septal, perigonal, or absent. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds with abundant endosperm and small embryo.

About 250 genera and 3500 species: worldwide, especially in temperate and subtropical regions; 57 genera (three endemic, two introduced) and 726 species (379 endemic, 11 introduced) in China.

Wang Fa-tsuan & Tang Tsin, eds. 1978; 1980. Liliaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 15: 1--280; 14: 1--308.


1 Herbs saprophytic, without green leaves   2 Petrosavia
+ Plants autotrophic, with green leaves.   (2)
       
2 (1) Plants cormous or bulbiferous.   (3)
+ Plants not bulbiferous or cormous, but often producing rhizomes or other underground organs.   (18)
       
3 (2) Plants cormous.   (4)
+ Plants bulbiferous.   (5)
       
4 (3) Perianth segments 7--10 × ca. 1 mm, straight; leaves straight at apex   26 Iphigenia
+ Perianth segments 45--50 × ca. 8 mm, strongly reflexed; leaves with an apical tendril   27 Gloriosa
       
5 (3) Styles 3; anthers reniform, with confluent locules.   (6)
+ Style 1, simple to 3-fid; anthers not reniform, with 2 separate locules.   (7)
       
6 (5) Pedicel pubescent; perianth segments not glandular at base   4 Veratrum
+ Pedicel glabrous; perianth segments glandular at base   5 Zigadenus
       
7 (5) Inflorescence an umbel, at first wholly enveloped by a scarious spathe   32 Allium
+ Inflorescence generally not an umbel or, if umbellate, never wholly enveloped by a scarious spathe.   (8)
       
8 (7) Flowers more than 30, in a dense raceme or spike.   (9)
+ Flowers 1--20, in a lax inflorescence.   (10)
       
9 (8) Bulb cylindric; inflorescence spicate; perianth segments partly united; plants with a strong, onionlike odor   33 Milula
+ Bulb ovoid or globose; inflorescence racemose; perianth segments free; plants without a strong, onionlike odor   34 Barnardia
       
10 (8) Leaves 2, apparently opposite; perianth segments strongly reflexed   16 Erythronium
+ Leaves generally more than 2; perianth segments not reflexed.   (11)
       
11 (10) Leaves cordate to ovate, reticulate veined   19 Cardiocrinum
+ Leaves neither cordate nor ovate, parallel veined.   (12)
       
12 (11) Bulbs with fleshy, farinaceous scales; perianth segments each with a concave nectary near base adaxially   17 Fritillaria
+ Bulbs without fleshy, farinaceous scales; perianth segments without a concave nectary.   (13)
       
13 (12) Anthers pseudobasifixed; axis of seed usually straight or slightly curved; leaves basal or cauline.   (14)
+ Anthers dorsifixed and versatile; axis of seed moderately to strongly curved; leaves cauline or at least mostly so.   (16)
       
14 (13) Basal leaves not arising from bulb but from underground stem; bulb more than 1 cm in diam.; perianth more than 2 cm, deciduous after anthesis   15 Tulipa
+ Basal leaves arising from bulb; bulb usually 4--5 mm in diam.; perianth less than 2 cm, persistent after anthesis.   (15)
       
15 (14) Perianth segments ± hardened and enlarged after anthesis, 1.5--2 × as long as capsule   13 Gagea
+ Perianth segments withered after anthesis, neither hardened nor enlarged, often shorter than capsule   14 Lloydia
       
16 (13) Bulb with a brown, scarious tunic; bulbels many, around roots; style 3-fid, apically recurved; seeds wingless   18 Notholirion
+ Bulb naked; bulbels absent; style apically with 3 stigmatic crests; seeds winged.   (17)
       
17 (16) Perianth segments similar, usually without spots or blotches   20 Lilium
+ Inner perianth segments larger than outer ones, generally all segments with dark spots or blotches   21 Nomocharis
       
18 (2) Leaves reduced to scales; branchlets becoming leaflike (cladodes), needlelike or linear, 0.2--3 mm wide, numbering several hundred in a single plant   41 Asparagus
+ Leaves not reduced to scales; branchlets not as above, fewer than 100 in a single plant.   (19)
       
19 (18) Fruit bursting irregularly at an early stage and exposing seeds; seeds ellipsoid to globose, each resembling a berry or small drupe.   (20)
+ Fruit a berry or capsule, never bursting before seed maturation.   (22)
       
20 (19) Leaves subplicate veined, with transverse venation between main veins; filaments united into a ring nearly closing mouth of perianth   57 Peliosanthes
+ Leaves parallel veined, without clear, transverse venation between main veins; filaments not forming a ring.   (21)
       
21 (20) Leaves longitudinally whitish striped; flowers ± nodding; ovary semi-inferior; filaments much shorter than anthers; seeds blue   56 Ophiopogon
+ Leaves not whitish striped; flowers erect or suberect; ovary superior; filaments longer than or as long as anthers; seeds blackish   55 Liriope
       
22 (19) Leaves 3--15 in 1 whorl; outer perianth segments leaflike.   (23)
+ Leaves not in 1 whorl; outer perianth segments not leaflike.   (24)
       
23 (22) Leaves usually 4--15 in 1 whorl; flowers 4-merous or more, inner perianth segments much narrower than outer ones   9 Paris
+ Leaves 3 in a whorl; flowers 3-merous, inner perianth segments only a little narrower than outer ones   10 Trillium
       
24 (22) Flowers unisexual; leaves reticulate veined between 3 or 5 main veins; plants mostly shrubby climbers.   (25)
+ Flowers bisexual; leaves parallel veined; plants not woody climbers.   (26)
       
25 (24) Perianth segments free (except in Smilax synandra)   11 Smilax
+ Perianth segments united into a tube   12 Heterosmilax
       
26 (24) Leaves succulent   29 Aloe
+ Leaves never succulent.   (27)
       
27 (26) Stems ± woody and continuously thickened, with clear leaf scars in apical part; leaves usually crowded at or toward apex of stem or branches.   (28)
+ Stems not woody, without leaf scars.   (29)
       
28 (27) Petiole 10--30 cm, leaf blade with veins essentially parallel but with lateral veins branching from midvein in proximal 1/2; ovary with 2 to many ovules per locule   36 Cordyline
+ Petiole absent to 8 cm, leaf blade with veins truly parallel from base, lateral veins absent; ovary with 1 or 2 ovules per locule   42 Dracaena
       
29 (27) Fruit a capsule.   (30)
+ Fruit a berry.   (43)
       
30 (29) Flowers clearly zygomorphic, upper 3 or 4 perianth segments much larger than lower ones   8 Chionographis
+ Flowers actinomorphic.   (31)
       
31 (30) Styles 3.   (32)
+ Style 1, simple to 3-parted.   (33)
       
32 (31) Leaves laterally flattened, basally equitant, sword-shaped; bracteole cupular; pedicel glabrous; anthers ovate, with 2 separate locules   1 Tofieldia
+ Leaves not laterally flattened; bracteole absent; pedicel pubescent; anthers reniform, with confluent locules   4 Veratrum
       
33 (31) Perianth proximally adnate to semi-inferior ovary   3 Aletris
+ Perianth not adnate to superior ovary.   (34)
       
34 (33) Stem elongate, ascending; leaves cauline; 3 stigma lobes each 2-parted at apex   23 Tricyrtis
+ Stem very short; leaves basal or nearly so; stigma not as above.   (35)
       
35 (34) Stamens 3   40 Anemarrhena
+ Stamens 6.   (36)
       
36 (35) Perianth segments united.   (37)
+ Perianth segments free.   (38)
       
37 (36) Leaves basally abruptly tapered into a petiole; flowers purplish to white   37 Hosta
+ Leaves linear, basally not tapered into a petiole; flowers yellowish to reddish   31 Hemerocallis
       
38 (36) Flowers not subtended by bracts; leaves basally gradually tapered into a petiole.   (39)
+ Flowers subtended by bracts; leaves ± linear or filiform, basally not tapered into a petiole.   (40)
       
39 (38) Inflorescence racemose or spicate; anthers basifixed, usually reniform, with ± confluent locules   6 Ypsilandra
+ Inflorescence umbellate or umbellate-racemose; anthers dorsifixed, lanceolate, with locules separate or confluent only at apex   7 Heloniopsis
       
40 (38) Leaves filiform, ca. 1 mm wide; inflorescence an umbel   35 Thysanotus
+ Leaves ± linear, more than 2 mm wide; inflorescence a raceme or a panicle.   (41)
       
41 (40) Perianth segments 1.7--4 cm; base of anthers with 2 prominent, caudate appendages 1--3 mm   39 Diuranthera
+ Perianth segments usually 1--1.5 cm; base of anthers with 2 lobes to 0.5 mm.   (42)
       
42 (41) Flowers more than 50, densely arranged in a terminal raceme; capsule globose, not angled   28 Eremurus
+ Flowers several to 20, laxly arranged in a terminal panicle or occasionally a raceme; capsule usually broadly globose, 3-angled   38 Chlorophytum
       
43 (29) Filaments swollen immediately below anther; leaves scabrous along midvein abaxially and at margin   30 Dianella
+ Filaments not as above; leaves never scabrous along midvein abaxially, rarely so at margin.   (44)
       
44 (43) Stem elongate; leaves cauline.   (45)
+ Stem very short; leaves basal or nearly so.   (51)
       
45 (44) Perianth segments free.   (46)
+ Perianth segments united.   (48)
       
46 (45) Inflorescence racemose with pedicels less than 6 mm or paniculate, axis elongate, ± ascending; stem simple; plants not stoloniferous   43 Maianthemum
+ Inflorescence usually 1-flowered or umbellate, rarely racemose with pedicels more than 1 cm, axis short, nodding; stem often branched; plants sometimes stoloniferous.   (47)
       
47 (46) Perianth segments basally neither saccate nor spurred   24 Streptopus
+ Perianth segments basally ± saccate or spurred   25 Disporum
       
48 (45) Inflorescence terminating a stem (pseudoterminal leaf absent).   (49)
+ Leaf terminating a stem (pseudoterminal leaf present).   (50)
       
49 (48) Inflorescence only terminal, ± ascending, racemose or paniculate, pubescent; anthers positioned at perianth mouth or exserted from perianth; plants hemicryptophytic   43 Maianthemum
+ Inflorescences often both terminal and axillary, nodding, racemose or subumbellate, often 1- or 2-flowered, sometimes 3--6-flowered, glabrous; anthers included in perianth; plants epiphytic   44 Heteropolygonatum
       
50 (48) Corona absent; filaments inserted on perianth tube; rhizome never green   45 Polygonatum
+ Corona present; filaments inserted on corona; rhizome mostly green   46 Disporopsis
       
51 (44) Perianth segments free.   (52)
+ Perianth segments united.   (54)
       
52 (51) Plants sympodial; anthers subextrorse; scape pubescent   22 Clintonia
+ Plants monopodial; anthers introrse; scape glabrous.   (53)
       
53 (52) Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, 3--5 cm wide, basally tapered into a petiole; bracteole absent; anthers dorsifixed and versatile   48 Speirantha
+ Leaves grasslike, 4--12 mm wide, sessile; bracteole present; anthers basifixed   47 Theropogon
       
54 (51) Scape arising from a creeping rhizome, with 1 flower apically   54 Aspidistra
+ Scape arising from a leaf tuft, with a several- to many-flowered inflorescence apically.   (55)
       
55 (54) Inflorescence a raceme; flowers nodding; leaf bases forming a pseudostem   49 Convallaria
+ Inflorescence a spike; flowers erect; pseudostem absent.   (56)
       
56 (55) Perianth lobes reflexed; anthers lanceolate; rhizome slender, 2--4 mm in diam.   50 Reineckea
+ Perianth lobes spreading to inflexed; anthers ovate to suborbicular; rhizome usually stout, (2--)6--30 mm in diam.   (57)
       
57 (56) Perianth lobes very small, inflexed   52 Rohdea
+ Perianth lobes 1/3--1/2 as long as tube, spreading to incurved.   (58)
       
58 (57) Anthers positioned higher than or as high as stigma; style short, 1(--3.5) mm, or absent; stigma small, 3-lobed   51 Campylandra
+ Anthers positioned lower than stigma; style long, 4--12 mm; stigma large, 2--7 mm in diam., peltate to mushroom-shaped   53 Tupistra

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