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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 14 | Apiaceae

1. Hydrocotyle Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 234. 1753.

天胡荽属 tian hu sui shu

She Menglan (佘孟兰 Sheh Meng-lan); Mark F. Watson, John F. M. Cannon

Herbs perennial. Stem slender, creeping or decumbent, rooting at the nodes. Leaves petiolate; petioles not sheathing; stipules present, entire or parted to base, membranous; blade cordate, orbicular, or reniform. Inflorescence a simple umbel; umbels sometimes densely capitate; peduncles axillary, obsolete to much longer than leaves; bracts present or absent; pedicels very short or extended (best seen in fruiting material). Flowers bisexual. Calyx teeth minute or obsolete. Petals white, greenish or yellow, valvate, ovate, spreading. Stylopodium conic to depressed. Fruit globose or ellipsoid, strongly flattened laterally, base cordate, dorsal surface rounded, glabrous (rarely with white hairs); dorsal and lateral ribs usually conspicuous, slender, acute (rarely obsolete); vittae inconspicuous. Seed face plane to concave; endocarp woody. Carpophore usually absent.

About 75(–100) species: tropical and temperate regions worldwide; 14 species (five endemic) in China.

1 Umbels several fascicled in axils and stem tip; peduncles shorter than the petioles, densely pubescent; flowers and fruit sessile.   1 Hydrocotyle nepalensis
+ Umbels solitary in axils, sometimes several at stem tip; peduncles shorter than or exceeding the petioles, glabrous or pubescent; flowers and fruit sessile or pedicellate.   (2)
2 (1) Leaf blade 0.5–1.5(–2.5) × 0.8–2(–5) cm; umbels sessile or peduncle distinctly shorter than petiole.   (3)
+ Leaf blade 1–8 × 2–11 cm; peduncle longer or about equaling the petiole.   (7)
3 (2) Axillary umbels sessile, apical umbels often with peduncles to 1 cm; fruit with white hairs or glabrous.   2 Hydrocotyle pseudoconferta
+ All umbels pedunculate, peduncle 0.5–3.5 cm; fruit glabrous.   (4)
4 (3) Petiole glabrous or distally sparsely pubescent.   (5)
+ Petiole densely pubescent or hirsutulous throughout.   (6)
5 (4) Umbels solitary in axils, 5–18-flowered.   3 Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides
+ Umbels 2 or 3 in axils, 2–5-flowered.   4 Hydrocotyle calcicola
6 (4) Petiole 3–15 cm, pubescent; leaf blade 3(–5)-parted, segments 3-lobed (Taiwan).   5 Hydrocotyle benguetensis
+ Petiole 0.5–3 cm, densely hirsutulous; leaf blade shallowly 5–7-lobed or nearly entire, lobes inconspicuously crenulate (Taiwan).   6 Hydrocotyle dichondroides
7 (2) Umbels not densely capitate in fruit; pedicels elongate, 2.5–8 mm.   (8)
+ Umbels densely capitate in fruit; pedicels to 2 mm.   (11)
8 (7) Leaf blade shallowly to moderately (to near middle) 5–7-lobed.   (9)
+ Leaf blade 5–7-divided, usually parted to middle or near base.   (10)
9 (8) Stems, petioles and peduncles glabrous or moderately hairy with white or brown hairs; leaves angular in outline, with 5 to 7 deep, usually triangular lobes.   8 Hydrocotyle hookeri
+ Stems, petioles and peduncles densely dark purple-brown hairy; leaves round in outline, with many very shallow, rounded lobes.   12 Hydrocotyle himalaica
10 (8) Leaf blade parted to near base; segments cuneate at base.   7 Hydrocotyle dielsiana
+ Leaf blade parted to 1/2–3/5; lobe base as broad as the middle.   9 Hydrocotyle wilsonii
11 (7) Stems, petioles and peduncles moderately to densely hairy with purple-brown hairs; leaves shallowly lobed or cleft to middle, lobes deltoid, apex acute.   13 Hydrocotyle salwinica
+ Stems, petioles and peduncles essentially glabrous, occasionally hairy at nodes or near distal ends; leaves very shallowly 5–7-lobed, lobes rounded-obtuse.   (12)
12 (11) Petioles short, 0.8–2.5 cm; leaf blade small, 0.7–1.3 × 0.8–1.6 cm, adaxially setulose, abaxially pubescent or hispid.   14 Hydrocotyle setulosa
+ Petioles (1–)15–19 cm; leaf blade larger, 1.5–3.5 × 2–7 cm, glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely hirsute along veins.   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blade glabrous on both surfaces or abaxially sparsely hirsute on veins; peduncles equaling or slightly longer than the petioles.   10 Hydrocotyle wilfordii
+ Leaf blade sparsely hirsute on both surfaces; peduncles 1–2 times longer than the petioles.   11 Hydrocotyle ramiflora

  • List of lower taxa


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