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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 18 | Bignoniaceae

10. Incarvillea Jussieu, Gen. Pl. 138. 1789.

角蒿属 jiao hao shu

Incarvillea mairei

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Amphicome Royle, Neidzwedzkia B. Fedtschenko.

Herbs erect or prostrate, annual or perennial, with stems or stemless. Leaves simple or 1-3-pinnately divided. Inflorescences racemose, terminal. Calyx campanulate, teeth 5, triangular, rarely enlarged into glands at base. Corolla red or yellow, funnelform, bilabiate; lobes rounded, spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, included; anthers divergent, glabrous, spurred at base. Disc annular. Ovary sessile, 2-locular; ovules numerous, 1- or 2-rowed on each placenta. Stigma compressed, flabellate, 2-lobed. Capsule dehiscing loculicidally, long terete, erect or curved, acuminate, sometimes 4-6-angular. Seeds minute, compressed, laterally with or surrounded by transparent and membranous wings or filiform hairs.

About 16 species: Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; 12 species in China.


1 Leaves simple, margin crenate   5 Incarvillea forrestii
+ Leaves pinnately divided or compound, margin entire or serrate.   (2)
       
2 (1) Leaves 2- or 3-pinnately divided.   (3)
+ Leaves 1-pinnately compound or divided.   (4)
       
3 (2) Plants with stems; leaves alternate; pedicel 1-5 mm; calyx ca. 5 mm, teeth subulate, base enlarged into glands   1 Incarvillea sinensis
+ Plants stemless; leaves basal; pedicel 5-15 mm; calyx 10-15 mm, teeth triangular, base not enlarged into glands   2 Incarvillea dissectifoliola
       
4 (2) Plants 1-2 m tall, with a distinct stem.   (5)
+ Plants 0.1-0.4 m tall, stemless or short stemmed.   (8)
       
5 (4) Calyx teeth subulate; capsule leathery, terete; anthers pubescent; seeds filiform pubescent at both ends; bracts ca. 3 mm   4 Incarvillea arguta
+ Calyx teeth triangular-lanceolate or semirounded; capsule subwoody, ± angled; anthers glabrous; seeds winged; bracts (5-)10-25 mm.   (6)
       
6 (5) Plants pale brown pubescent; flowers yellow; leaves divided   8 Incarvillea lutea
+ Plants glabrous; flowers red or rose; leaves compound.   (7)
       
7 (6) Calyx teeth semirounded or truncate, mucronate; lateral leaflets 3-4 cm wide   6 Incarvillea altissima
+ Calyx teeth broadly triangular, acute; lateral leaflets ca. 2 cm wide   7 Incarvillea beresowskii
       
8 (4) Leaves pinnately lobed, margin irregularly lobed or parted; calyx teeth subulate, base enlarged into glands   3 Incarvillea potaninii
+ Leaves usually pinnately compound, margin entire or serrate; calyx teeth triangular or long ovate, base not enlarged into glands.   (9)
       
9 (8) Leaflets entire; plants short stemmed   12 Incarvillea compacta
+ Leaflets serrate; plants stemless.   (10)
       
10 (9) Leaflets scabrous; plants 10-20 cm tall   11 Incarvillea younghusbandii
+ Leaflets glabrous; plants 20-40 cm tall.   (11)
       
11 (10) Lateral leaflets 4-11 pairs, long elliptic-lanceolate; base obtuse to subrounded; corolla ca. 6.5 cm; style ca. 3 cm   9 Incarvillea delavayi
+ Lateral leaflets 2-4(-8) pairs, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, base cordate or broadly cuneate; corolla 7-10 cm; style 5-7 cm   10 Incarvillea mairei

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