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Bignoniaceae A. L. Jussieu

紫葳科 zi wei ke

Authors: Zhi-Yun Zhang & Thawatchai Santisuk

Incarvillea lutea

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Trees, shrubs, or vines, climbers rarely herbs. Leaves opposite, alternate, or whorled, simple or pinnately compound, rarely palmately compound, without stipules, climbers usually with tendrils modified sometimes into hooks or suckers. Inflorescences cymose, paniculate, or racemose, terminal or axillary, rarely flowers borne on old stems; bracts and bractlets present, sometimes deciduous. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, usually large. Calyx campanulate or tubular, truncate, 2-5-dentate, or glandular subulate-dentate. Corolla campanulate or funnelform, usually bilabiate; lobes 5, imbricate or valvate. Fertile stamens 4 (didynamous) and staminode 1, or 2 and staminodes 3, rarely all 5 stamens fertile. Disc fleshy. Ovary superior, 2-locular, rarely 1- or 4-locular; placentation axile or parietal; ovules numerous. Style filiform; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule dehiscing loculicidally or septicidally, rarely fruit fleshy and indehiscent. Seeds numerous, usually winged or with tufts of hairs at both ends; endosperm absent.

About 116-120 genera and 650-750 species: mostly in tropical and subtropical regions; 12 genera and 35 species (21 endemic) in China.

Plants of the Bignoniaceae usually produce large flowers, and many species are widely cultivated in China as ornamentals. These include Arrabidaea magnifica Sprague ex Steenis, Campsis radicans (Linnaeus) Seemann, Catalpa speciosa (Warder ex Barney) Engelmann, Clytostoma callistegioides (Chamisso) Bureau & Schumann, Crescentia alata Kunth, C. cujete Linnaeus, Jacaranda cuspidifolia Martius, J. mimosifolia D. Don, Kigelia africana (Lamarck) Bentham, Macfadyena unguis-cati (Linnaeus) A. H. Gentry, Pandorea jasminoides (Linnaeus) Schumann, Parmetiera cerifera Seemann, Podranea ricasoliana (Tanfani) Sprague, Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawler) Miers, Spathodea campanulata Beauvois, Stenolobium stans (Linnaeus) Seemann, Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacquin) G. Nicholson, T. rosea (Bertoloni) de Candolle, and Tecomaria capensis (Thunberg) Spach.

Dolichandrone spathacea (L. f.) Schumann has recently been reported from Hainan (Yaichou, Wanning, Wenchan) and maritime Guangdong (see A Checklist of Flowering Plants of Isl. and Reefs of Hainan and Guangdong Province, 1994), but we have not examined Chinese material of the species.

Tao Deding & Yin Wenqing. 1990. Bignoniaceae. In: Wang Wentsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 69: 1-62.


1 Capsule dehiscing septicidally.   (2)
+ Capsule dehiscing loculicidally.   (4)
       
2 (1) Leaves 1-pinnately compound; vines   1 Nyctocalos
+ Leaves 2- or 3-pinnately compound; trees.   (3)
       
3 (2) Inflorescences cymose; flowers white; corolla tube narrow and long; capsule linear, ca. 32 cm   2 Millingtonia
+ Inflorescences racemose; flowers purple-red; corolla campanulate; capsule oblong-lanceolate, ca. 1 m   3 Oroxylum
       
4 (1) Leaves simple; fertile stamens 2; seeds with tufts of hairs at both ends   4 Catalpa
+ Leaves pinnately or palmately compound; fertile stamens 4, didynamous or equal; seeds membranous winged.   (5)
       
5 (4) Calyx spathelike.   (6)
+ Calyx campanulate.   (7)
       
6 (5) Leaves 1-pinnately compound; inflorescences racemose, terminal; stamens didynamous; capsule long cylindric, floccose or villous   11 Markhamia
+ Leaves 2-pinnately compound; inflorescences short racemose, borne on old stems; stamens almost equal; capsule linear, glabrous   12 Mayodendron
       
7 (5) Vines or herbs.   (8)
+ Trees or shrubs.   (9)
       
8 (7) Vines, with aerial roots; capsule oblong; flowers orange-red   9 Campsis
+ Herbs perennial, biennial, or annual, with or without stems; capsule long horn-shaped; flowers red or yellow   10 Incarvillea
       
9 (7) Seeds wingless, compressed globose; leaf axis winged; capsule septum membranous   5 Pauldopia
+ Seeds winged; leaf axis usually wingless; capsule septum thick, usually woody.   (10)
       
10 (9) Corolla 1.5-4 cm in diam.; calyx 1-2 cm in diam.   6 Fernandoa
+ Corolla less than l cm in diam.; calyx less than 1 cm in diam.   (11)
       
11 (10) Septum terete; capsule 4-angled   7 Stereospermum
+ Septum compressed terete; capsule 2-angled   8 Radermachera

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