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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

192. Inula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 881. 1753.

旋覆花属 xuan fu hua shu

Corvisartia Mérat.

Perennials or annuals. Stems not winged, sometimes with decurrent leaves, with or more frequently without resin canals. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, simple, usually sessile, sometimes in a basal rosette, margins usually serrate to dentate, sometimes entire. Capitula heterogamous radiate to miniradiate, heterogamous disciform, or homogamous discoid, borne singly or in open, corymbiform arrays. Involucres hemispheric or campanulate, [5-]10-40 mm in diam.; phyllaries persistent, in 4-7+ series. Receptacles flat or convex, smooth or alveolate, epaleate. Ray florets (15-)50-150+, female, fertile; corolla yellow to orange, lamina 10-30+ mm. Disk florets bisexual, mostly (50-)100-250+; corolla yellow, lobes 5; epidermis with straight cell walls, without needlelike crystals. Anthers ecalcarate, with branched tails; endothecial tissue radial; cells of antheropodium generally longer than wide. Pollen spines with a cavity. Style branches with acute sweeping hairs, not reaching furcation. Achenes ellipsoid or cylindric, ribbed; epidermis with elongated crystals. Pappus persistent, of basally connate, barbellate bristles or setiform scales usually in 1 series. x = 8, 9, 10.

About 100 species: Africa, Asia, Europe; 14 species (two endemic) in China.

Inula taiwanensis S. S. Ying (Mem. Coll. Agric. Natl. Taiwan Univ. 29(1): 78. 1989) could not be treated here because no material was seen by the present authors.

1 Plants acaulescent; basal leaves rosette, obovate-spatulate; capitula densely congested, encircled by rosette of leaves.   1 I. rhizocephala
+ Stems erect, leafy; capitula terminal on stems or branches, solitary or in corymbs   (2)
2 (1) Capitula 5-8 cm in diam.; involucre 2.5-4.5 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries broadly ovate, herbaceous; perennial herbs; achenes glabrous, 4- or 5-angled; leaves abaxially densely white lanate   (3)
+ Capitula generally less than 5 cm in diam., rarely up to 6-10 cm; outer phyllaries narrowly linear or lanceolate, herbaceous or dry membranous; herbs or shrubs; achenes pubescent or glabrous; leaves abaxially glabrous or pubescent or sericeous   (4)
3 (2) Peduncles 6-12 cm, capitula in loose corymb.   2 I. helenium
+ Peduncles 0-4 cm, capitula in raceme.   3 I. racemosa
4 (2) Subshrubs; phyllaries unequal, innermost ones more than 2 × as long as outer, outer ones linear or subulate, dry membranous; leaves short, triangular.   4 I. salsoloides
+ Perennial herbs; phyllaries subequal, rarely inner ones longer, outer ones linear, herbaceous; leaves not short and triangular   (5)
5 (4) Capitula 6-10 cm in diam.; involucre 1.8-4 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries narrowly linear, usually reflexed, with long spreading purplish brown hairs; ray floret lamina 2-3 × as long as involucre, abaxially pilose; pappus white, achenes glabrous.   5 I. hookeri
+ Capitula 1-5 cm in diam.; involucre 0.5-2 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries similar to inner ones, erect, pubescent or glandular; ray floret lamina abaxially glabrous; pappus white, slightly yellow, or red   (6)
6 (5) Stems profusely branched from a woody rootstock.   6 I. obtusifolia
+ Stems simple or corymbosely branched above   (7)
7 (6) Basal and lower cauline leaves larger than upper leaves, decurrent to long petioles, persistent at anthesis; upper leaves erect; blade abaxially white lanate; achenes glabrous.   7 I. sericophylla
+ Basal and lower cauline leaves similar to upper cauline leaves, withering at anthesis; leaves spreading, abaxially glabrous or subglabrous; achenes pubescent, pilose, or glabrous   (8)
8 (7) Leaf blade elliptic or oblong-lanceolate; involucre densely surrounded by bracteal leaves; outer phyllaries lanceolate-oblong; achenes glabrous.   8 I. salicina
+ Leaf blade ovate, elliptic, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate; involucre not surrounded by bracteal leaves; outer phyllaries linear, spatulate-linear, or linear-lanceolate; achenes pubescent, pilose, or glabrous   (9)
9 (8) Leaves abaxially glabrous or pubescent on veins; pappus shorter than disk corolla; achenes glabrous   (10)
+ Leaves abaxially sparsely pubescent; pappus as long as disk corolla; achenes pubescent or pilose   (11)
10 (9) Leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base rounded, cuneate, or auriculate, semiamplexicaul; pappus of 10 or 11 bristles.   9 I. helianthus-aquatilis
+ Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, base rounded-auriculate; pappus of 5 or 6 bristles.   10 I. hupehensis
11 (9) Capitula 2-3.5 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries shorter than inner ones; upper stems, peduncles, and leaves abaxially scabrid pubescent; biennials.   11 I. caspica
+ Capitula 2.5-5 cm in diam.; phyllaries subequal or outer ones slightly shorter than inner ones; upper stems, peduncles, and leaves abaxially pubescent; perennials   (12)
12 (11) Leaves linear-lanceolate, margin reflexed, base not auriculate; capitula 1-2.8 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries abaxially glandular.   12 I. linariifolia
+ Leaves oblong, elliptic-lanceolate, or elliptic, margin not reflexed, base auriculate or not; capitula 2.5-5 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries abaxially glandular or not   (13)
13 (12) Leaf base cordate, auriculate, semiamplexicaul.   13 I. britannica
+ Leaf base narrower and not auriculate.   14 I. japonica

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