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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Acanthaceae

24. Justicia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 15. 1753.

爵床属 jue chuang shu

Authors: Jia-qi Hu & Thomas F. Daniel

Adatoda Adanson; Adhatoda Miller; Calophanoides Ridley; Ecbolium Kuntze (1891), not Kurz (1871); Gendarussa Nees; Mananthes Bremekamp; Rhaphidospora Nees; Rostellaria Nees (1832), not C. F. Gaertner (1807); Rostellularia Reichenbach.

Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs, cystoliths present. Leaves sessile or petiolate; leaf blade margin usually entire but sometimes sinuate or slightly serrate. Inflorescences dichasia (sometimes reduced to a single flower) in leaf axils or axillary or terminal spikes, racemes, or thyrses, sometimes branched and becoming panicles; bracts variable in shape, sometimes prominent and/or brightly colored; bracteoles 2, similar to or smaller than bracts. Calyx deeply 4- or 5-lobed; lobes equal or subequal. Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped; limb strongly 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed; upper lip entire to 2-lobed, internally rugulate (i.e., with a stylar furrow); lobes ascending cochlear in bud. Stamens 2; anthers 2-thecous; thecae equally or unequally inserted, parallel to perpendicular, one or both spurred at base or sometimes lacking basal appendages; staminodes absent. Ovary with 2 ovules per locule; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Capsule with a sterile basal stalk and a fertile head (i.e., ± clavate), 2-4-seeded; retinacula present. Seeds compressed [to spheric].

About 700 species: tropical and temperate regions worldwide; 43 species (26 endemic, three introduced) in China.

Justicia betonica Linnaeus, J. brandegeeana Wasshausen & L. B. Smith, and J. carnea Lindley are only cultivated in China so are not treated here.


1 Calyx equally 4-lobed or unequally 5-lobed (i.e., with one lobe conspicuously smaller than others)   (2)
+ Calyx equally 5-lobed   (7)
       
2 (1) Leaves sessile   (3)
+ Leaves petiolate   (4)
       
3 (2) Plants diffuse, to 8 cm tall; leaf blade lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, glabrous.   1 J. demissa
+ Plants usually erect, to 100 cm tall; leaf blade oblong to broadly ovate, pubescent.   2 J. mollissima
       
4 (2) Leaf blade linear, to 5 mm wide.   3 J. neolinearifolia
+ Leaf blade ovate to elliptic to subcircular, usually wider than 5 mm   (5)
       
5 (4) Bracts obovate-elliptic, broadest at or above middle, 2-3 mm wide.   6 J. hayatae
+ Bracts ovate to elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, mostly broadest near base, 0.6-1.3 mm wide   (6)
       
6 (5) Spikes dense and cylindric, ± densely pubescent.   4 J. procumbens
+ Spikes neither dense nor cylindric, sparsely pubescent.   5 J. diffusa
       
7 (1) Flowers in axillary abbreviated spikes, spikes ca. 1 cm, usually solitary or several clustered   (8)
+ Flowers in terminal or axillary elongated spikes (or racemes or panicles), or in axillary cymes, or in thyrses of 3-flowered cymes   (22)
       
8 (7) Leaf blade glabrous   (9)
+ Leaf blade ± pubescent (sometimes glabrous or only pubescent along veins in J. quadrifaria)   (11)
       
9 (8) Leaf blade linear to linear-lanceolate.   7 J. neesiana
+ Leaf blade ovate to broadly elliptic (rarely lanceolate)   (10)
       
10 (9) Bracts subcircular.   8 J. kwangsiensis
+ Bracts lanceolate.   9 J. alboviridis
       
11 (8) Corolla ca. 2 cm.   10 J. wardii
+ Corolla less than 1.5 cm   (12)
       
12 (11) Bracts linear, lanceolate, or ovate, broadest at base, 1-veined   (13)
+ Bracts ovate to circular to elliptic to obovate to spatulate-obovate, broadest above base, pinnately veined   (14)
       
13 (12) Bracts 2-3 mm.   20 J. siccanea
+ Bracts 5-6 mm.   21 J. xantholeuca
       
14 (12) Leaf blade (2-)5.5-11.5 cm   (15)
+ Leaf blade 0.8-7(-10.5) cm   (16)
       
15 (14) Bracts ovate to obovate, with 3-4 mm petiole, apex obtuse; calyx 5-6 mm.   17 J. quadrifaria
+ Bracts obovate to circular, with 1-2 mm petiole, apex retuse or rounded; calyx ca. 1 cm.   18 J. kouytcheensis
       
16 (14) Leaf blade adaxially glabrous.   13 J. xylopoda
+ Leaf blade adaxially pubescent at least when young   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade sparsely pubescent, soon glabrescent or abaxially pilose along midvein.   11 J. championii
+ Leaf blade hispid, or densely grayish or white or yellowish pubescent   (18)
       
18 (17) Bracts circular to subcircular.   16 J. hainanensis
+ Bracts not circular (sometimes subcircular in J. xerobatica and J. xerophila)   (19)
       
19 (18) Corolla white   (20)
+ Corolla whitish yellow, yellow, or yellowish green   (21)
       
20 (19) Stems yellow pilose; leaf blade 3-5 mm wide.   12 J. xerophila
+ Stems minutely white sericeous; leaf blade 5-8 mm wide.   19 J. xerobatica
       
21 (19) Stems villous.   14 J. albovelata
+ Stems sericeous.   15 J. yunnanensis
       
22 (7) Flowers in terminal thyrses of 3-flowered cymes; both anther thecae spurred at base.   22 J. grossa
+ Flowers in spikes or axillary cymes; only lower anther theca spurred at base   (23)
       
23 (22) Corolla 2.5-3 cm.   23 J. adhatoda
+ Corolla 2.2 cm or less   (24)
       
24 (23) Flowers in axillary cymes.   24 J. vagabunda
+ Flowers in terminal or axillary spikes (or panicles of spikes), or sometimes in racemes   (25)
       
25 (24) Bracts (at least lower ones) longer than calyx   (26)
+ Bracts equaling or shorter than calyx   (30)
       
26 (25) Bracts 1-1.5 cm.   25 J. ventricosa
+ Bracts to 1 cm   (27)
       
27 (26) Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, to 1.5 cm wide; basal bracts longer than calyx then gradually smaller with apicalmost ones shorter than calyx.   26 J. gendarussa
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate to elliptic to subcircular, often wider than 1.5 cm; all bracts longer than calyx   (28)
       
28 (27) Spikes interrupted; flowers distant on rachis; corolla yellow with purplish spots.   27 J. pseudospicata
+ Spikes continuous; flowers dense on rachis; corolla pale white or yellowish green with purplish red dots or stripes   (29)
       
29 (28) Leaf blade margin entire; bracts ovate to elliptic, basally pale green and purplish red above middle, apex acuminate.   28 J. latiflora
+ Leaf blade margin entire or crenate; bracts broadly obovate or flabellate, green, apex acuminate to obtuse and mucronate with 1-3 teeth.   29 J. austrosinensis
       
30 (25) Leaves sessile   (31)
+ Leaves petiolate   (32)
       
31 (30) Leaf blade oblanceolate to rarely lanceolate, 8-17 × 2.5-6.5 cm, abaxially rust-colored when dry.   30 J. ferruginea
+ Leaf blade obovate, 15-26 × 7.5-15 cm, abaxially dark green when dry.   31 J. panduriformis
       
32 (30) Leaf blade base cordate to truncate   (33)
+ Leaf blade base (rounded to) cuneate to attenuate   (34)
       
33 (32) Flowers usually 1 per rachis node; stems 4-angled; calyx ca. 4 mm; calyx and corolla pubescent with gland-tipped trichomes outside.   32 J. lianshanica
+ Flowers usually 2-5 per rachis node; stems terete; calyx ca. 2 mm; calyx and corolla pubescent with non-glandular trichomes outside.   33 J. cardiophylla
       
34 (32) Stems short; leaves in a basal rosette.   34 J. austroguangxiensis
+ Stems elongated; leaves cauline   (35)
       
35 (34) Flowers more than 1 per rachis node   (36)
+ Flowers 1 per rachis node   (38)
       
36 (35) Shrubs to 2 m tall; leaf blade (2-)3-5.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm; inflorescences unbranched spikes.   36 J. microdonta
+ Herbs to 1 m tall; leaf blade 4-12.5(-18) × 2.5-6.5(-8) cm; inflorescences unbranched or branched   (37)
       
37 (36) Leaf blade 10.5-12.5(-18) × 5-6.5(-8) cm; flowers in spikes.   35 J. leptostachya
+ Leaf blade 4-9 × 2.5-4.5 cm; flowers in spiciform racemes (pedicel ca. 1 mm).   37 J. damingensis
       
38 (35) Calyx lobes elliptic-lanceolate, apex obtuse or rounded.   38 J. amblyosepala
+ Calyx lobes linear to lanceolate or narrowly triangular, apex acute   (39)
       
39 (38) Stems sharply 4-angled, slightly winged along angles.   39 J. acutangula
+ Stems subterete to 4-angled, wingless   (40)
       
40 (39) Corolla tube 2-3 × as long as limb.   40 J. patentiflora
+ Corolla tube less than 2 × as long as limb   (41)
       
41 (40) Calyx puberulent on both surfaces.   41 J. poilanei
+ Calyx glabrous adaxially   (42)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade lanceolate, broadest below middle, 4.3-5 cm wide; bracts ca. 1.5 mm.   42 J. kampotiana
+ Leaf blade elliptic to obovate-elliptic, broadest at or above middle, 1.2-4.2 cm wide; bracts 3-4 mm.   43 J. caudatifolia

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