4. Leibnitzia Cassini in F. Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 25: 420. 1822.
大丁草属 da ding cao shu
Authors: Tiangang Gao & D. J. Nicholas Hind
Herbs, perennial. Leaves rosulate, appearing before or with first capitula; leaf blade entire, pinnatifid, or lyrate. Scapes 1-11, bracteate, slender throughout. Capitula terminal on scape, radiate, heterogamous, appearing twice (spring and autumn) in one year, dimorphic, chasmogamous or cleistogamous; involucres obconic, cylindric, or campanulate; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate; receptacles flat to slightly convex, foveolate to alveolate, glabrous, epaleate. Vernal florets chasmogamous, all fertile, marginal uniseriate, female, bilabiate, with obvious laminae, outer lip 3-toothed at apex, inner 2-lobed, lobes linear; central florets many, bisexual, bilabiate (tubular), laminae reduced. Autumnal florets cleistogamous, all fertile, marginal uniseriate, bilabiate (raylike), with obvious laminae, outer lip 3-toothed at apex, inner lobes strongly reduced; central florets many, bisexual, bilabiate, narrowly tubular, lobes very short, nearly actinomorphic; anther bases long tailed, apex appendages lanceolate; styles shallowly divided at apex, style branches short, abaxially pilose, apices rounded to truncate. Achenes fusiform, sometimes beaked, ribbed, strigose; pappus of fine bristles. 2n = 46.
Six species: Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia; Central and North America (Guatemala, Mexico, United States); four species in China.