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177. Leontopodium R. Brown ex Cassini, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris. 1819: 144. 1819.

火绒草属 huo rong cao shu

Authors: Yousheng Chen & Randall J. Bayer

Leontopodium calocephalum

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, rarely subshrubs, perennial. Stem with fibers in phloem, without resin canals, without pericyclic cambium. Leaves alternate, sessile, tomentose to villous, eglandular, margin flat, entire. Capitula heterogamous, disciform, in flat-topped terminal corymbs, surrounded by a whorl of prominent, white lanate leaves. Receptacle flat, epaleate. Phyllaries papery, monomorphic, monochromous, brownish, transparent; stereome undivided. Female florets yellow, filiform, outnumbering disk florets. Disk florets functionally male; corolla yellow; corolla lobes erect, veins reaching apex of lobes. Anthers ecalcarate, with short tails; endothecial tissue polarized; apical appendage flat, as wide as thecae. Pollen gnaphalioid. Style bifid; style branches truncate with obtuse sweeping hairs dorsally, not reaching furcation; stigmatic surface separated. Achene in disk and female florets small, oblong, with 5 vascular bundles, sparsely hairy with short, clavate, not myxogenic, twin hairs; epidermis smooth. Pappus dimorphic, of basally connate, barbellate, capillary bristles in 1 row; apical cells clavate in disk florets, acute in female. x = 7.

About 58 species: Asia, Europe; 37 species (17 endemic) in China.

Handel-Mazzetti recorded several putative natural hybrids in Leontopodium from China, including L. ×albogriseum Handel-Mazzetti (Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 74-75: 28. 1926), described from Yunnan, L. ×gracile (Acta Horti Gothob. 1: 121. 1924), described from W Sichuan, and several others indicated by hybrid formulae (Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 231-237. 1938). It is somewhat difficult to distinguish them according to our present knowledge.

1 Pappus not white   (2)
+ Pappus white or rarely red   (5)
2 (1) Pappus purplish brown; corolla purplish brown at least in upper part; bracteal leaves linear-lanceolate or linear   (3)
+ Pappus yellowish brown; corolla yellow or purplish red; bracteal leaves oblong-lanceolate or absent   (4)
3 (2) Leaves linear-lanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, 3-10 mm wide; pappus purplish brown, but yellow in lower part; corolla purplish brown at upper part; achenes ca. 1.8 mm.   1 L. giraldii
+ Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 2-4 mm wide; pappus deep purplish brown throughout; corolla purplish brown above; achenes less than 1 mm.   2 L. villosum
4 (2) Sparse erect herbs; bracteal leaves oblong-lanceolate.   3 L. forrestianum
+ Compact pulvinate herbs; bracteal leaves absent.   4 L. aurantiacum
5 (1) Compact pulvinate herbs; bracteal leaves absent.   5 L. haastioides
+ Erect herbs or subpulvinate herbs; bracteal leaves present   (6)
6 (5) Pappus and corolla red above.   6 L. roseum
+ Pappus white; corolla yellow or white   (7)
7 (6) Stems and leaves adaxially densely yellow or brown glandular hairy, or leaves with arachnoid pubescence   (8)
+ Stems and leaves white, gray, or yellowish arachnoid pubescent, without glandular hairs   (12)
8 (7) Leaf blade linear-lanceolate, basally gradually narrowed, both surfaces with grayish or greenish arachnoid pubescence.   7 L. haplophylloides
+ Leaf blade base cordate, auriculate, or narrower, abaxially densely white arachnoid tomentose   (9)
9 (8) Leaf blade linear or spatulate-lanceolate, veinlets indistinct   (10)
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, margin even or undulate, veinlets distinct   (11)
10 (9) Perennial herbs; stems not branched; leaves 10-35 × 1-3 mm.   8 L. franchetii
+ Subshrubs; stems many branched; leaves 3-10 × 0.5-1.5 mm.   9 L. suffruticosum
11 (9) Stems herbaceous or subwoody at base; leaf blade base cordate; bracteal leaves ovate-lanceolate.   10 L. stracheyi
+ Stems woody; leaf blade base narrowed or slightly auriculate; bracteal leaves lanceolate or long lanceolate.   11 L. artemisiifolium
12 (7) Leaf base ampliate and cordate, sagittate, or truncate.   12 L. dedekensii
+ Leaf base narrowed or not, or rarely auriculate   (13)
13 (12) Subshrubs; stems woody, usually branched.   13 L. sinense
+ Perennial herbs; stems herbaceous or woody at lower part, usually not branched   (14)
14 (13) Cauline leaves not sheathing at base   (15)
+ Cauline leaves or some of them sheathing at base   (19)
15 (14) Rhizome shortly branched, usually without relicts of old leaves; stems branched or not branched; synflorescence usually in compound corymbs.   14 L. japonicum
+ Rhizome long branched, densely covered with relicts of old leaves above; stems not branched; synflorescence usually solitary   (16)
16 (15) Rhizome and suckers sparsely arranged; bracteal leaves subequal but usually broader than cauline leaves   (17)
+ Rhizome and suckers densely arranged and tufted; bracteal leaves distinctly broader than cauline leaves   (18)
17 (16) Flowering stems 12-42 cm tall; achenes glabrous.   15 L. wilsonii
+ Flowering stems 5-10(-18) cm tall; achenes papillose.   16 L. omeiense
18 (16) Leaves linear or subulate, 8-30 × 0.8-1.4 mm, margin reflexed, adaxially usually green and glabrescent.   17 L. andersonii
+ Leaves oblanceolate, 7-12 × 1.5-2 mm, margin not reflexed, densely whitish lanate on both surfaces.   18 L. microphyllum
19 (14) Bracteal leaves larger than cauline leaves; capitula solitary.   19 L. monocephalum
+ Bracteal leaves subequal to cauline leaves, or slightly wider; capitula usually numerous, very rarely solitary   (20)
20 (19) Plants pulvinate; leaves linear-lanceolate, 6-10 × 0.5-1 mm.   20 L. muscoides
+ Plants caespitose with long stems, or pulvinate, or stem solitary; leaves linear-lanceolate, linear-spatulate, or spatulate, usually longer and wider   (21)
21 (20) Plants caespitose or pulvinate; rhizome stout, with numerous suckers, without sterile rosette stems, or if sterile rosette stems present then leaves spatulate   (22)
+ Plants caespitose or stem solitary; rhizome slender, usually with sterile rosette stems   (29)
22 (21) Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, rarely elliptic; capitula 4-5 mm in diam.; bracteal leaves distinct and forming a star   (23)
+ Leaves spatulate; capitula 4-13 mm in diam.; bracteal leaves indistinct   (26)
23 (22) Sheaths as wide as leaf.   21 L. delavayanum
+ Sheath narrower than leaf   (24)
24 (23) Leaves oblanceolate-oblong or oblanceolate, 7-15 × 2-6 mm; flowering stems 1-7 cm tall.   22 L. fangingense
+ Leaves linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, 6-25 × 1-3 mm; flowering stems 6-28 cm tall   (25)
25 (24) Plants stoloniferous, stolons slender, elongate, usually branched, terminated by a loose rosette of leaves; achenes pubescent.   23 L. jacotianum
+ Plants not stoloniferous; stems erect, caespitose, usually not branched; achenes glabrous.   24 L. caespitosum
26 (22) Bracteal leaves numerous, large, forming an irregular star   (27)
+ Bracteal leaves few, smaller, not forming a star   (28)
27 (26) Stem 1-5 cm; capitula (1-)3-7.   25 L. pusillum
+ Stem 6-10 cm; capitula 3-5.   26 L. brachyactis
28 (26) Plants pulvinate; capitula 6-15 mm in diam.   27 L. nanum
+ Plants caespitose; capitula ca. 4 mm in diam.   28 L. stoloniferum
29 (21) Upper cauline leaves base broadened, usually surrounding stem   (30)
+ Upper cauline leaves base narrowed or not, not surrounding stem   (31)
30 (29) Cauline leaves linear or lingulate-linear, 1-4 cm; bracteal leaves 9-14, 10-20 × 1.5-3 mm, forming a star of 2-3 cm in diam.   29 L. souliei
+ Cauline leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 5-15 cm; bracteal leaves 10-18, 20-45 × 3-6 mm, forming a multiradiate star of 5-8 cm in diam.   30 L. calocephalum
31 (29) Bracteal leaves lingulate, usually broader at base, apex acute to acuminate.   31 L. himalayanum
+ Bracteal leaves lanceolate or ovate, rarely linear, apex acute or obtuse   (32)
32 (31) Leaves adaxially usually green and glabrescent.   32 L. junpeianum
+ Leaves grayish arachnoid tomentose on both surfaces   (33)
33 (32) Plants usually 5-10 cm tall, usually with dense sterile rosettes; leaves oblong, lingulate, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate.   33 L. ochroleucum
+ Plants usually 15-35 cm tall, not forming dense clusters; leaves lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, or oblanceolate   (34)
34 (33) Bracteal leaves ovate-lanceolate, broadened at base, abaxially light green.   34 L. conglobatum
+ Bracteal leaves oblong or linear, base not broadened, abaxially gray or whitish   (35)
35 (34) Bracteal leaves linear with acuminate apex, forming a distinct star; phyllaries ca. 4 mm.   35 L. campestre
+ Bracteal leaves oblong, linear-lanceolate, or rarely linear, not forming a regular star; phyllaries 4.5-6 mm   (36)
36 (35) Bracteal leaves few, not forming a star.   36 L. leontopodioides
+ Bracteal leaves forming an irregular star.   37 L. smithianum

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