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58. Melanoseris Decaisne in Jacquemont, Voy. Inde. 4(Bot.): 101. 1843.

毛鳞菊属 mao lin ju shu

Authors: Zhu Shi & Norbert Kilian

Chaetoseris C. Shih; Kovalevskiella Kamelin; Stenoseris C. Shih.

Herbs, perennial, sometimes rosulate, rarely acaulescent, glabrous, glandular hairy, pilose, or hispid. Stems solitary or several, usually leafy. Leaves pinnate, lyrately pinnate, or undivided. Capitula often nodding, with 3-40 florets. Involucre narrowly cylindric to broadly campanulate. Phyllaries glabrous or with soft or rigid hairs; outer phyllaries mostly in several series, gradually longer centripetally, mostly to more than 1/2 as long as inner ones and often even ± approaching them in length, more rarely very short, absent in one species with a secondary capitulum (Melanoseris souliei); inner phyllaries 3 to many, ± equal in length, ± linear-lanceolate to linear. Receptacle naked. Florets bluish, purplish, sometimes yellow, or rarely white. Achene some shade of brown, mostly ellipsoid and strongly compressed, more rarely subcylindric to ± fusiform and weakly compressed, with (4 or)5 main ribs (2 mostly strongly broadened lateral, 1 median ventrally, and (1 or)2 median dorsally) and with 0-2 slender ribs in between main ribs, apex truncate, attenuate, or with a stout beak. Pappus white or rarely yellowish, single of slender scabrid bristles or more frequently double and with an additional outer row of minute hairs.

Probably ca. 60-80 species: Africa, Asia, Himalayan region; 25 species (16 endemic) in China; one additional species (endemic) is tentatively placed with Melanoseris.

The generic name Melanoseris, based on M. lessertiana, is one of the oldest in subtribe Lactucinae but has never found recognition. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of subtribe Lactucinae (N. Kilian et al., in prep.) revealed, however, that the bulk of Chaetoseris, including the type of the name, the genus Stenoseris, and a number of species formerly placed in Cicerbita, Lactuca, Mulgedium, and Prenanthes, are all members of a sizable Melanoseris clade. The genus chiefly seems to represent the important branch in the evolution of subtribe Lactucinae that successfully colonized subtropical and drier tropical regions.

Recent works, corroborating the observation by Stebbins (Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 19(3): 47-50. 1940) on the peculiarity of Melanoseris souliei inferred from achene morphology, have shown that M. souliei is misplaced in Syncalathium and the Crepidinae (J. W. Zhang et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 154: 79-87. 2007; N. Kilian et al. in V. A. Funk et al., Syst. Evol. Biogeogr. Compositae, 348-350. 2009; J. W. Zhang et al., Taxon 60: 15-26. 2011) and the striking overall similarity to the species of that genus purely a result of convergent evolution in response to the environmental changes following the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The inclusion of Syncalathium orbiculariforme by X. Zhuang (Fl. Yunnan. 13: 764. 2004) has been supported also by molecular studies (J. W. Zhang et al., loc. cit. 2011). The molecular phylogenetic analysis of subtribe Lactucinae (N. Kilian et al., in prep.) reveals the species to be nested in the Melanoseris clade. It is here therefore tentatively assigned to Melanoseris, admitting that this is debatable in the light of its peculiar morphology and the still not settled circumscription of the genus.

Lactuca scandens C. C. Chang, Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China, Bot. Ser. 9: 133. 1934.

攀援岩参 pan yuan yan shen

Herbs, perennial. Stem semiscandent, pale purplish red, with reddish bristles. Basal leaves unknown. Lower and middle stem leaves with red bristles and with slender basally ± widened, ± winged petiole to ca. 9 cm; leaf blade suborbicular or subreniform, 4.5-5.5 × 4.5-7.5 cm, base cordate, margin faintly denticulate, apex acuminate. Uppermost stem leaves sessile or with short, winged, clasping petiole and ovate to narrowly elliptic-ovate blade, otherwise similar to middle stem leaves. Synflorescence racemiform, branches 1-1.5 cm with 2 or 3 capitula. Capitula with 4 or 5 florets. Involucre narrowly cylindric, ca. 1.2 cm. Phyllaries blackish green, reddish setose; outer phyllaries inconspicuous; inner phyllaries 4 or 5, apex subacute. Florets yellow. Achene not seen when mature. Pappus white, ca. 6.5 mm.

● Chongqing (Baxian).

No material has been available of Lactuca scandens, based on and only known from the collection T. T. Yü 1702 made in October 1932 in the "vicinity of Pa-hsien" (deposited in the herbarium of the Science Society of China at Nanking). C. C. Chang compared it with, and considered it to be related to, the insufficiently known L. hirsuta Franchet, placed here in Melanoseris not without doubt (see above). Lactuca scandens is diagnosed rather clearly, and in its combination of characters it resembles only few known species of Cichorieae in China (even if the presumed scandent habit is ignored) but matches none in a way that conspecificity could be proposed with sufficient confidence. A safe generic assignment, however, is not possible from the original description; thus, its treatment under Melanoseris is very tentative and a formal transfer not justified.

1 Plants rosulate and acaulescent; capitula sessile, densely congested in a secondary capitulum; phyllaries only in 1 row.   25 M. souliei
+ Plants neither rosulate nor acaulescent; capitula without secondary capitula; phyllaries in 2 or more rows   (2)
2 (1) Capitula with 3-9 florets; inner phyllaries 3-5(or 6)   (3)
+ Capitula with 10 or more florets; inner phyllaries at least (7 or)8   (11)
3 (2) Involucre 1.5-1.8 mm; capitula with 7-9 florets; plants, including involucre, strongly hirsute with pale hairs.   7 M. hirsuta
+ Involucre 0.9-1.4(-1.6) mm; capitula with 3-6 florets; plants, including involucre, glabrous or ± hairy, but never strongly hirsute with pale hairs   (4)
4 (3) Involucre 1.3-1.6 mm; inner phyllaries 4; achene 9-11 mm including a slender 3-4 mm beak.   10 M. henryi
+ Involucre 0.9-1.4(-1.5) mm; inner phyllaries 3-5(or 6); achene 4-7 mm and unbeaked or with less than 2 mm beak   (5)
5 (4) Outer phyllaries with longest 4-5 mm; inner phyllaries 5(or 6); florets 4-6.   23 M. violifolia
+ Outer phyllaries with longest ≤ 3 mm; inner phyllaries 3-5; florets 3-5   (6)
6 (5) Leaf blade of all leaves not divided   (7)
+ Leaf blade of at least lower and middle leaves pinnatisect or lyrately pinnatisect   (8)
7 (6) Involucre with 3 or 4 inner phyllaries; capitula with 3 or 4 bluish purple florets; anther tube ca. 2 mm.   16 M. tenuis
+ Involucre with 4 or 5 inner phyllaries; phyllaries with reddish hairs; capitula with 4 or 5 yellow florets; anther tube ca. 4 mm.  

Lactuca scandens

8 (6) Involucre 1.2-1.5 cm at anthesis and in fruit; outer phyllaries with longest to 3 mm; achene 6-7 mm.   18 M. graciliflora
+ Involucre 0.9-1.1 cm at anthesis and in fruit; outer phyllaries with longest to 2 mm; achene 4-5 mm   (9)
9 (8) Achene unbeaked.   20 M. oligolepis
+ Achene contracted into a distinct stout beak of 0.5-1 mm   (10)
10 (9) Rachis of leaves usually pectinate; leaf blade terminal lobe ovate to ovate-lanceolate, base truncate, shallowly cordate, or broadly cuneate.   17 M. triflora
+ Rachis of leaves not pectinate; leaf blade terminal lobe elliptic to lanceolate, base cuneate.   19 M. leptantha
11 (2) Peduncle bracts regularly conspicuous, usually purplish red when dry, lanceolate, to 1.5 cm, ± semiamplexicaul.   24 M. bracteata
+ Peduncle without or with inconspicuous bracts   (12)
12 (11) Outer phyllaries with white densely fimbriate margin   (13)
+ Outer phyllaries with glabrous margin   (14)
13 (12) Capitula with ca. 40 florets; involucre conspicuously thick and large, 1.8-2.3 × 1-1.5 cm.   3 M. macrantha
+ Capitula with ca. 15 florets; involucre only ca. 1.5 × 0.8 cm.   4 M. ciliata
14 (12) Florets yellow (cyanic florets sometimes drying yellowish, corolla teeth then keeping original color)   (15)
+ Florets purple, purplish red, blue, or exceptionally white   (16)
15 (14) Leaves pinnately lobed, lobes narrowly elliptic, elliptic, or lanceolate; involucre 1.1-1.5 mm.   1 M. yunnanensis
+ Leaves pinnately lobed, lobes rhombic to irregularly rhombic; involucre 9-10 mm.   2 M. rhombiformis
16 (14) Plants 5-50 cm tall; stems either several, weak, and sparsely branched or with solitary dominant stem branched from base or else stem delicate   (17)
+ Plants taller; stem strong, with dominant main stem apically branched   (18)
17 (16) Plants 5-30 cm tall; capitula with usually 12-24 florets; involucre to 10 mm in diam. in fruit; branches, peduncles, and involucres often reddish villous; pappus without a row of minute outer hairs.   21 M. lessertiana
+ Plants 20-50 cm tall; capitula with usually 10-15 florets; involucre ≤ 5 mm in diam. in fruit; branches, peduncles, and involucres never reddish villous; pappus with a row of minute outer hairs.   22 M. macrorhiza
18 (16) Lower and middle stem leaves gradually attenuate into a petiole or petiole-like basal portion, at least middle stem leaves with blade usually clasping stem; blade shape not as below   (19)
+ Lower and middle stem leaves abruptly contracted from a basally broad blade into a narrowly winged petiole; leaf blade undivided and triangular-ovate to broadly lanceolate or pinnately lobed with 1-3 pairs of elliptic to lanceolate lateral lobes   (22)
19 (18) Involucre at fruiting 1-1.5 cm wide; capitula with usually 25-35 florets.   12 M. atropurpurea
+ Involucre at fruiting less than 1 cm wide; capitula with usually 10-16 florets   (20)
20 (19) Capitula with ca. 10 florets.   14 M. likiangensis
+ Capitula with 12-16 florets   (21)
21 (20) Involucre 1.7-2 cm; leaf blade lateral lobes 1 or 2 pairs.   13 M. leiolepis
+ Involucre ca. 1.5 cm; leaf blade lateral lobes 5-7 pairs.   15 M. pectiniformis
22 (18) Lower and middle stem leaves with 2 or 3 pairs of lateral lobes; leaf blade terminal lobe usually much narrower than blade   (23)
+ Lower and middle stem leaves undivided or with 1 or 2 pairs of lateral lobes; leaf blade terminal lobe at least in some leaves as wide or almost as wide as blade   (24)
23 (22) Involucre ca. 1.5 cm in fruit; capitula with usually 15-20 florets.   8 M. sichuanensis
+ Involucre ca. 2 cm in fruit; capitula with ca. 30 florets.   9 M. taliensis
24 (22) Involucre 1.7-2.1 cm; capitula with ca. 40 florets.   11 M. macrocephala
+ Involucre 1.2-1.7 cm; capitula with usually 15-30 florets   (25)
25 (24) Lower and middle stem leaves undivided or single leaves with 1 pair of elliptic lateral lobes; involucre 1.3-1.7 cm.   5 M. cyanea
+ Lower and middle stem leaves with 1 or 2 pairs of elliptic lateral lobes; involucre 1.2-1.5 cm.   6 M. beesiana

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