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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

98. Parasenecio W. W. Smith & J. Small, Trans. & Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh. 28: 93. 1922.

蟹甲草属 xie jia cao shu

Authors: Yilin Chen, Bertil Nordenstam & Hiroshige Koyama

Herbs, perennial. Rhizomes robust, erect or horizontal, with numerous fibrous roots. Stem solitary, erect, usually striate or sulcate, glabrous, arachnoid, or glandular puberulent. Leaves alternate, petiolate, simple or palmately or pinnately lobed, serrate. Capitula small or medium-sized, discoid, homogamous, all bisexual, fertile, few to numerous flowered, terminal or axillary, racemose or paniculate, pedunculate or subsessile, often calyculate. Involucres cylindric or narrowly campanulate, rarely campanulate. Phyllaries uniseriate, free. Receptacle flat, paleaceous or not. Florets few to numerous; corolla yellow, white, or orange, tubular, with slender tube and narrowly campanulate or broadly tubular limb; lobes 5, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; anthers sagittate or caudate at base; antheropodium cylindric, filaments slender; style branches apically truncate or rather dilated with unequal papillae. Achenes cylindric, glabrous, ribbed. Pappus of capillary-like bristles, white, sordid white, or sordid fulvous-brown.

About 60 species: mainly in E Asia and the Sino-Himalayan region, also across Russia and one species in the Aleutian Islands; 52 species (43 endemic) in China.

1 Leaves large, orbicular or orbicular-cordate, palmately divided, petioles basally amplexicaul, shortly vaginate (1. P. sect. Taimingasa).   1 P. firmus
+ Leaves large or medium-sized, not orbicular or orbicular-cordate, simple or divided, petioles basally not vaginate   (2)
2 (1) Radical leaves persistent, stem leaves 1, rarely 2, or bracteal-leaflike; capitula 3 or 4, or more; involucres campanulate or narrowly campanulate, phyllaries 8-10; florets 10-28 (2. P. sect. Parasenecio)   (3)
+ Radical leaves withered by anthesis, or if persistent then florets 5; stem leaves few to numerous; capitula few to numerous, paniculate or racemose-paniculate; involucres cylindric or narrowly campanulate; phyllaries 3-10, rarely more; florets (2 or)3-5(-8) or more   (4)
3 (2) Plants densely glandular pubescent; radical leaves broadly cordate, obtuse, or suborbicular; stem leaves 1, rarely 2, sessile or subsessile; capitula pendulous; phyllaries 8 or 9; florets 10-16, corolla white or pink-white.   2 P. forrestii
+ Plants densely brown pubescent; radical leaves ovate or ovate-orbicular, stem leaves few, bracteal-leaflike, shortly petiolate; capitula erect; phyllaries 9 or 10; florets 28, corolla yellow.   3 P. begoniifolius
4 (2) Involucres cylindric, 2-5 mm; phyllaries 4-6; florets 2-6; leaves ovate or broadly ovate-cordate, irregularly coarsely toothed or shallowly 3-10-lobed; petioles not winged, basally not expanded (3. P. sect. Koyamacalia).   4 P. chola
+ Involucres cylindric or campanulate, more than 4 mm; phyllaries 3-8, rarely more; florets 3-15, rarely more; leaves polymorphic, irregularly coarsely toothed, shallowly lobed to divided; petioles winged or not, basally auriculate or not auriculate   (5)
5 (4) Stem leaves numerous; leaf blade palmately divided; phyllaries 3-5, rarely 7 or 8; florets 3-5, rarely 10-14 (5. P. sect. Delphiniifolii)   (6)
+ Stem leaves few to numerous, triangular, triangular-ovate, reniform, polyangular, or ovate-cordate, coarsely toothed or shallowly lobed, adaxially glabrous, pubescent, or densely tomentose   (11)
6 (5) Leaf blade palmately 5-7-lobed, lobes obovate, oblong, or ovate-oblong   (7)
+ Leaf blade palmately deeply 5-7-sect, lobes lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate to linear, rarely obovate or spatulate   (8)
7 (6) Leaf blade basally hastate, lobes broad, apically caudate or long acuminate; peduncles ca. 1 mm, glandular puberulent; phyllaries and florets 5.   47 P. delphiniifolius
+ Leaf blade basally subcordate, lobes narrow, apically acute; capitula sessile, brown puberulent; phyllaries and florets 3.   48 P. pilgerianus
8 (6) Leaf blade broadly ovate, palmately deeply sect, lobes obovate or spatulate, lateral lobes 2-fid to deeply sect, both surfaces glabrous; phyllaries and florets 3; pappus white.   52 P. tripteris
+ Leaf blade ovate-oblong, pentagonal-cordate, or orbicular-ovate, lobes lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate to linear   (9)
9 (8) Leaves pinnate-palmately divided, lobes pinnately lobulate or 2-4-denticulate; phyllaries 4; (plants of Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan).   51 P. palmatisectus
+ Leaves palmately lobed, lateral lobes often 1-lobulate or finely toothed; phyllaries 5, 7, or 8; (plants of Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi)   (10)
10 (9) Leaf blade 10-20 × 12-24 cm, 5-7-lobed; phyllaries 7 or 8; florets 10-14; achenes 5-6 mm; pappus red-brown.   49 P. sinicus
+ Leaf blade 16-27 × 15-35 cm, (5 or)6-9-lobed; phyllaries 5; florets 5; achenes ca. 3 mm; pappus white.   50 P. dissectus
11 (5) Leaves adaxially glabrous or pubescent; capitula few to numerous, pedunculate or not; pappus white or red-brown (3. P. sect. Koyamacalia)   (12)
+ Leaves adaxially arachnoid, densely lanate, or hairy initially, gradually glabrescent (4. P. sect. Monanthi)   (29)
12 (11) Capitula few, or solitary at apex and axillary in upper leaves, pendulous; involucres campanulate, 5-10 mm in diam.; phyllaries 8-10; florets numerous, ca. 38; leaves triangular; petioles not winged.   5 P. deltophyllus
+ Capitula numerous or more in terminal racemes or panicles; involucres cylindric or narrowly campanulate, (1-)3-5 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-8; florets few; leaves not triangular; petioles winged or not   (13)
13 (12) Capitula numerous, small; involucres cylindric, 1-2 mm in diam.; phyllaries and florets 3-5; leaf blade polyangular or reniform, 5-7-lobed or coarsely toothed; corolla white or yellow   (14)
+ Capitula more numerous, larger; involucres 3-5 or 10-20 mm in diam.; pappus white, sordid white, or red-brown   (16)
14 (13) Capitula sessile; involucres ca. 5 × 1 mm; phyllaries and florets 3 or 5; corolla white; pappus sordid white or pale yellow-brown.   18 P. ambiguus
+ Capitula pedunculate; involucres 6-8 × 1.5-2 mm; phyllaries and florets 5; corolla white or yellow; pappus white or yellow-brown   (15)
15 (14) Capitula racemose or compound racemose; peduncles short or very short; involucres cylindric; phyllaries obtuse or rounded; pappus white.   19 P. ainsliaeiflorus
+ Capitula laxly racemose or compound racemose; peduncles 1-2 mm; involucres narrowly campanulate; phyllaries acute; corolla yellow; pappus pale yellow-brown.   20 P. kangxianensis
16 (13) Involucres campanulate, 10-15 × 10-20 mm; phyllaries 7-12; florets 8-38; pappus red-brown   (17)
+ Involucres 5-8(-10) mm; phyllaries and florets 4-8, rarely more; pappus white or sordid white   (18)
17 (16) Leaves broadly triangular, 3-5-lobed, lobes triangular, basal lobes sometimes rudimentary; capitula smaller; involucres narrowly campanulate, 10-12 × 5-10 mm; phyllaries 7 or 8; florets 8-10.   21 P. rubescens
+ Leaves pentagonal-hastate, lateral lobes small, narrowly triangular or obscure; capitula large; involucres campanulate, 13-15 × 17-20 mm; phyllaries 12; florets numerous (ca. 38).   22 P. matsudae
18 (16) Petioles not winged, basally not expanded into auricles   (19)
+ Petioles winged   (22)
19 (18) Leaf axils with buds   (20)
+ Leaf axils without buds   (21)
20 (19) Leaf blade hastate-triangular, apex acuminate or long acuminate, base cordate, both surfaces scaly puberulent; phyllaries 7 or 8; florets 10-13; pappus white.   14 P. nokoensis
+ Leaf blade broadly triangular-hastate or ovate-triangular, apex long acuminate or caudate, base hastate or broadly cordate, adaxially densely glandular pubescent; phyllaries and florets 5; pappus brown or purple-brown.   15 P. hastiformis
21 (19) Leaf blade triangular-hastate, apex acute or acuminate, base broadly cordate, both surfaces glabrous or subglabrous; phyllaries 5; florets 5 or 6.   16 P. albus
+ Leaf blade pentagonal-reniform, apex acute or rounded-obtuse, base deeply cordate, abaxially hispidulous, adaxially on veins puberulent; phyllaries 8(or 9); florets 16-19.   17 P. vespertilio
22 (18) Petioles narrowly or indistinctly winged, basally not expanded into auricles   (23)
+ Petioles broadly winged, base often expanded and auriculate   (24)
23 (22) Capitula pendulous, arranged in pyramidal panicles; phyllaries 7 or 8, glandular pubescent; florets 8-15(-20); blade triangular-hastate, adaxially densely or laxly pubescent; petioles narrowly winged.   6 P. hastatus
+ Capitula erect, arranged in broadly pyramidal panicles with long divaricate branches; phyllaries 5 or 6; florets 5-8; blade triangular-lanceolate, apex acuminate or caudate, adaxially laxly pilose on veins or subglabrous; petioles indistinctly winged.   7 P. lancifolius
24 (22) Plants to 2-3 m tall, stems robust; leaves broadly triangular or triangular-hastate, petioles with 1.5-2 cm wide wings, base expanded and amplexicaul-auriculate; capitula numerous, 250-350, in broad pyramidal panicles; phyllaries 4 or 5; florets 5-7.   8 P. komarovianus
+ Plants 30-100 cm tall; stems slender; leaves reniform or triangular-reniform, petioles large or small auriculate; capitula more numerous, racemose or paniculate; phyllaries 4 or 5; florets 4-7   (25)
25 (24) Leaf blade oblate-reniform, thinly papery, retuse or subtruncate, triangular-rostrate at center, margin irregularly coarsely toothed stipitate glandular hairy; petioles basally entire or dentate auriculate; phyllaries 4; florets 5.   9 P. maowenensis
+ Leaf blade not oblate-reniform, papery, apically constricted long apiculate, with regular teeth or with concave teeth at subbasal margins glandular puberulent; phyllaries 5; florets 4-7(or 8)   (26)
26 (25) Leaves reniform or triangular-reniform, both surfaces glabrous   (27)
+ Leaves triangular-hastate or ovate to broadly ovate, adaxially hairy   (28)
27 (26) Phyllaries 4-8 mm, 1/3-1/2 as long as corolla and pappus by anthesis; capitula racemose, rarely paniculate; petioles basally expanded and small auriculate.   10 P. auriculatus
+ Phyllaries 8-12 mm, subequal to or rather shorter than corolla by anthesis; capitula laxly or densely paniculate; petioles basally with 1.5-2 cm wide auricle.   11 P. praetermissus
28 (26) Median stem leaves triangular-hastate, lateral lobes triangular, irregularly repand-dentate, adaxially puberulent on veins; petioles toward base gradually expanded into ovate-orbicular or orbicular, 1.5-2.5 cm wide auricle; auricles entire or remotely toothed; phyllaries 5; florets 5 or 6.   12 P. gansuensis
+ Stem leaves broadly ovate or broadly cordate, adaxially sparsely arachnoid or subglabrous; petioles with 5-10 mm wide wings, basally expanded into a large amplexicaul auricle; phyllaries (3 or)5; florets 3 or 4(or 5).   13 P. otopteryx
29 (11) Plants glabrous or sparsely arachnoid in upper part; leaves triangular, ovate-triangular, or hastate-triangular, distinctly prominently 3-veined; anthers basally long caudate   (30)
+ Plants all or at least upper part arachnoid or villous; leaf blade ovate-triangular, ovate-cordate, or cordate, basally 3-veined or palmately 5-7-veined, abaxially arachnoid, glandular hairy, or ± glabrescent   (39)
30 (29) Leaves divided   (31)
+ Leaves not divided   (34)
31 (30) Leaf blade obovate-spatulate, lyrately pinnate; lobes ovate, oblong, or obovate-triangular, coarsely toothed, adaxially arachnoid-tomentose; petioles broadly winged, basally expanded into auricle; phyllaries and florets 5 or 6.   32 P. cyclotus
+ Leaf blade 3-5-lobed to medially sect   (32)
32 (31) Leaves reniform-pentangular or broadly ovate-pentangular; petioles not winged, often with many globose bulblets in upper branches of synflorescence; phyllaries and florets 4 or 5.   29 P. quinquelobus
+ Leaves reniform-triangular or broadly ovate; petioles winged, but without bulblets   (33)
33 (32) Leaf blade broadly triangular, 3-lobed, central lobe 3-fid, lateral lobes 2-fid, abaxially white arachnoid-tomentose; petioles narrowly winged, basally without auricle; phyllaries and florets 4 or 5.   30 P. rockianus
+ Leaf blade reniform-triangular or broadly ovate, medially 3-5-sect, lobes lobulate or coarsely toothed, abaxially white arachnoid-tomentose, adaxially densely brown hispidulous; petioles broadly winged, basally auriculate; phyllaries 5; florets 8(-10).   31 P. souliei
34 (30) Petioles winged, often expanded into subamplexicaul auricle; capitula pendulous   (35)
+ Petioles not winged, base not or ± expanded, but without auricles; capitula ascending or pendulous   (36)
35 (34) Leaf blade ovate-triangular to broadly triangular, stiffly papery; petioles broadly winged, basally expanded into broad or narrow auricle; phyllaries 3; florets 5 or 6.   23 P. latipes
+ Leaf blade triangular or triangular-hastate, thick, abaxially arachnoid-tomentose; petioles with 4-15 mm in diam. orbicular auricles; phyllaries 6-8; florets 9-12(-14).   24 P. lidjiangensis
36 (34) Stem leaves numerous, crowded at middle part of stem; leaves ovate or reniform-triangular, margin with cartilaginous coarse teeth; capitula laxly racemose, but not secund; phyllaries 3; florets 2 or 3.   27 P. tenianus
+ Stem leaves 3 or 4, often crowded at middle to lower part of stem; capitula secund   (37)
37 (36) Radical leaves withered and fallen by anthesis; leaf blade membranous or submembranous, broadly ovate or ovate-oblate, abaxially densely white tomentose; florets (6-)8 or 9.   25 P. taliensis
+ Radical leaves persistent at anthesis; leaf blade papery, ovate-triangular, broadly ovate, or rhombic, abaxially not white tomentose; florets 5   (38)
38 (37) Stems yellow-brown multicellular pubescent; leaves often crowded in lower middle part of stem, ovate-triangular or broadly ovate, rarely rhombic or cordate, abaxially yellow-brown villous; capitula narrowly paniculate.   28 P. koualapensis
+ Stems slender, glabrous; leaves crowded near base of stem, ovate-orbicular or cordate, abaxially becoming purple when dry, glabrous; capitula spicate.   26 P. jiulongensis
39 (29) Leaf blade ovate-triangular, ovate, or cordate, usually basally 3-veined; phyllaries (2 or)3-5; florets 1-5, rarely more   (40)
+ Leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate or cordate, palmately 5-7-veined, abaxially arachnoid-tomentose or glandular hairy; phyllaries 3-5(or 6); florets (2-)5-8(-10)   (46)
40 (39) Capitula numerous, spreading or pendulous, racemose or paniculate; phyllaries (2 or)3; florets 1-3, rarely 4   (41)
+ Capitula laxly paniculate or narrowly racemose-paniculate; phyllaries 5; florets 5 or 6, rarely 10-13   (43)
41 (40) Phyllaries 2; floret 1; leaves 4, lax on stem, subtriangular-reniform, abaxially densely lanate, adaxially crisped-volute hairy; petioles not winged.   35 P. morrisonensis
+ Phyllaries 2 or 3(or 4); florets 3(or 4); leaf blade ovate-triangular or broadly cordate; petioles winged or not   (42)
42 (41) Capitula laxly pyramidal-paniculate, pendulous, secund; leaves ovate-triangular, abaxially white or gray-white arachnoid; petioles not winged.   33 P. roborowskii
+ Capitula narrowly racemose-paniculate, spreading; leaves broadly cordate, abaxially sparsely arachnoid, adaxially sparsely hairy; petioles narrowly winged.   34 P. xinjiashanensis
43 (40) Stem leaves 4 or 5; petioles winged   (44)
+ Stem leaves 2-4(or 5); petioles not winged   (45)
44 (43) Leaves membranous, broadly ovate to ovate-rhombic, acute, angular coarsely toothed; petioles distinctly winged.   36 P. profundorum
+ Leaves thinly papery, broadly ovate or ovate-triangular, caudate-acuminate, serrulate; petioles indistinctly winged or not winged; uppermost leaves bractlike.   37 P. phyllolepis
45 (43) Stems slender, glabrous; stem leaves 2 or 3, broadly cordate-orbicular or ovate- cordate-orbicular or ovate-cordate, abaxially violet or purplish, sparsely arachnoid; capitula broadly paniculate; involucres 12-14 × 1.5-2 mm, glabrous; florets 5 or 6.   38 P. ianthophyllus
+ Stems robust, white arachnoid; stem leaves 4 or 5, ovate-triangular or triangular-hastate, abaxially white arachnoid; capitula narrowly paniculate; involucres 8-10 × 4-5 mm, outside white lanate; florets 10-13.   39 P. leucocephalus
46 (39) Phyllaries 3 or 4; florets 2-4; plants adpressed gray-white arachnoid-lanate, intermixed glandular puberulent.   40 P. longispicus
+ Phyllaries 5; florets 5-8(-10); plants arachnoid or red-brown glandular pubescent   (47)
47 (46) Axillary scale buds ovoid-globose, brown tomentose; capitula racemose, upper part laxly bracteate, often with bulblets; phyllaries 5 or 6; florets 8-10.   41 P. bulbiferoides
+ Bulblets absent from leaf axils and bracts; capitula spicate-racemose or paniculate   (48)
48 (47) Stems, petioles, and involucres arachnoid or later ± glabrescent   (49)
+ Stems, petioles, and involucres red-brown or brown villous or knotted glandular pubescent   (50)
49 (48) Capitula spicate-racemose; involucres 12-14 mm; florets 5-8; petioles 5-14 cm, not winged, basally not expanded.   42 P. petasitoides
+ Capitula laxly narrowly paniculate; involucres ca. 10 mm; florets 7 or 8; petioles indistinctly narrowly winged, basally expanded and subamplexicaul.   43 P. hwangshanicus
50 (48) Lower stems glandular pubescent, upper part white arachnoid or hispidulous; peduncles 3-4 mm; corolla orange.   46 P. dasythyrsus
+ Stems, petioles, and phyllaries red-brown or brown pubescent; peduncles very short or capitula subsessile; corolla yellow   (51)
51 (50) Leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate or reniform, triangularly 5-lobed or deeply serrate, red-brown hyaline glandular hairy; petioles 5-10 cm, basally not expanded.   44 P. rufipilis
+ Leaf blade reniform or ovate, undulate-lobed, lobes broadly triangular, abaxially arachnoid or puberulent, adaxially brown puberulent; petioles 10-15 cm, basally expanded, subamplexicaul.   45 P. tsinlingensis

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