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83. Phalaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 54. 1753.

草属 ge cao shu

Authors: Zhen-lan Wu & Sylvia M. Phillips

Annual or perennial, tufted or rhizomatous. Leaf blades linear, flat; ligule membranous. Inflorescence a contracted or spikelike panicle. Spikelets strongly laterally compressed, florets 3 with lower 2 usually reduced to sterile lemmas and uppermost floret bisexual, disarticulating above glumes, rachilla not or very rarely extended beyond uppermost floret; glumes subequal, boat-shaped, as long as spikelet and enclosing florets, herbaceous, prominently 3-veined, strongly keeled and often winged along midvein; sterile lemmas up to 1/2 as long as fertile lemma, narrow, often hairy, or one or both reduced to a vestigial fleshy scale at base of fertile floret; fertile floret shorter than glumes, leathery often becoming cartilaginous and shiny, rounded on back, obscurely 5-veined, awnless; palea resembling lemma, 2-veined. Caryopsis tightly enclosed by lemma and palea; embryo small; hilum linear. x = 7.

Eighteen species: mainly in the Mediterranean region and warm-temperate parts of the New World, one species circumboreal; several species widely distributed as adventives; five species (four introduced) in China.

1 Spikelets falling in clusters of 7, a single fertile spikelet encircled by 6 reduced sterile spikelets.   5 P. paradoxa
+ Spikelets all alike, not in clusters, disarticulating above the persistent glumes   (2)
2 (1) Glumes not or very narrowly winged; perennial with spreading rhizomes.   1 P. arundinacea
+ Glumes winged; annual or tufted perennial   (3)
3 (2) Perennial, culm bases often bulbously thickened.   2 P. aquatica
+ Annuals, culm bases not thickened   (4)
4 (3) Sterile lemmas 2, equal; anthers ca. 3 mm.   3 P. canariensis
+ Sterile lemma 1; anthers 1.5–1.8 mm.   4 P. minor

Lower Taxa


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