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20. Pinellia Tenore, Atti Reale Accad. Sci. Sez. Soc. Reale Borbon. 4: 69. 1839.

半夏属 ban xia shu

Authors: Heng Li & Josef Bogner

Atherurus Blume; Hemicarpurus Nees.

Herbs, perennial, seasonally dormant; tuber cormlike, subglobose, or rhizome cylindric; tubercles usually formed around main tuber, on tuber around base area of petioles, or at rhizome ends; bulbils usually at proximal, middle, or distal part of petioles, sometimes on both petiole and base of leaf blade. Leaves 1-5; petiole green, usually unspotted, sometimes spotted; sheath fairly long, very short, or nearly absent; bulbils present or absent; leaf blade simply cordate, ovate, oblong, deeply trifid, or trisect, or pedatisect; leaflets oblong-elliptic to ovate-oblong; primary lateral veins of leaf blade or of each leaflet pinnate, forming a submarginal collective vein, with 1 or 2 distinct marginal veins also present, higher order venation reticulate. Inflorescence solitary, appearing with leaves; peduncle green, shorter or slightly longer than petioles. Spathe persistent, slightly to strongly constricted between tube and blade (except in Pinellia pedatisecta); tube convolute, narrowly ellipsoid to ovate, almost closed within by a transverse septum (except in P. pedatisecta), gaping at base; limb arching, gaping, green to purple, oblong-elliptic, boat-shaped, ca. 2 × or more as long as tube. Spadix much longer than spathe; female zone adnate to spathe, separated from male zone by spathe septum (except in P. pedatisecta) and by short, free, naked part of spadix axis; male zone free, cylindric, short; terminal sterile appendix long exserted from spathe, often sigmoid, narrowly subulate. Flowers unisexual, perigone absent. Male flowers 1- or 2-4-androus; stamens sometimes united congenitally in pairs or groups of 4, short, laterally compressed; anthers sessile, connective slender, thecae ellipsoid, 2-celled, dehiscing by apical slit, rarely each pollen sac opening by a pore. Pollen extruded in amorphous mass, inaperturate, spherical or subspheroidal, small to medium sized, exine spinulose. Female flower (gynoecium, pistil) with ovary ovoid to ovoid-oblong, 1-loculed; ovule 1, orthotropous, funicle very short; placentation basal; stylar region attenuate; stigma small, hemispheric to disciform. Berries green, yellowish green, or whitish, oblong-ovoid. Seeds obnapiform to ellipsoid; testa irregularly verrucose-rugulose or smooth; embryo axile, elongate, or very small and subglobose; endosperm copious. 2n = 26, 28, 52, 54, 72, 78, 104, 115, 116, 128.

Nine species: E Asia (China, Japan, Korea), with the center of diversity in E China (Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang); two species regionally naturalized in Australia, Europe, and North America; nine species (seven endemic) in China.

See the recent synopsis of Pinellia by G. Zhu, H. Li and R. Li (Willdenowia 37: 503-522. 2007).

1 Leaf blade compound, 3-foliolate or pedate   (2)
+ Leaf blade entire   (5)
2 (1) Leaf blade always pedate, leaflets 6-11; bulbils absent.   9 P. pedatisecta
+ Leaf blade 3-foliolate or pedate with 5 leaflets   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blade only deeply 3-partite, anterior lobe broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, sessile; bulbils absent.   6 P. tripartita
+ Leaf blade trisect, sometimes pedate with only 5 leaflets, leaflets oblong or lanceolate   (4)
4 (3) Petiole lacking bulbils, bulbils emerging only from tuber; lateral leaflets usually bifid.   7 P. yaoluopingensis
+ Bulbils present at petiole below middle, or both at proximal part of petiole and at base of leaf blade.   8 P. ternata
5 (1) Leaf blade peltate, ovate or oblong.   4 P. peltata
+ Leaf blade not peltate   (6)
6 (5) Petiole lacking bulbils   (7)
+ Petiole or base of leaf blade bearing bulbils   (8)
7 (6) Leaf blade deltoid-ovate or broadly ovate, base deeply cordate, 6-33 × 4-22 cm.   1 P. polyphylla
+ Leaf blade ovate or oblong, base obtuse or shallowly cordate, 5-19 × 1.5-6 cm.   2 P. integrifolia
8 (6) Tuber globose; leaf blade sagittate-oblong, cordate-ovate, base deeply cordate; bulbils present at base of petiole and at base of leaf blade.   3 P. cordata
+ Rhizome cylindric; leaf blade broadly sagittate; bulbils at base of petiole.   5 P. fujianensis

Lower Taxa


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