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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 9 | Pittosporaceae

1. PITTOSPORUM Banks ex Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 286. 1788.
[nom. cons.]

海桐花属 hai tong hua shu

Tobira Adanson, nom. rej.

Trees, shrubs, or sometimes subshrubs, evergreen, pubescent or glabrous. Leavs alternate, appearing opposite or pseudoverticillate, usually clustered at branchlet apex; leaf blade leathery or sometimes membranous, margin entire, undulate-dentate, or rugose. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, umbellate, corymbose, paniculate, or a solitary flower. Flowers bisexual, rarely polygamous. Sepals 5, free, usually short and small. Petals 5, free or partly connate. Stamens 5; filament glabrous; anther dorsifixed, ± sagittate, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, usually stipitate, of 2 or 3(–5)carpels, 1-loculed or incompletely 2–5-loculed, pubescent or glabrous; ovules usually numerous, sometimes 1–4; placentas parietal and equal in number to carpels, or basilar owing to reduction of ovules. Style short, simple or 2–5-lobed, usually persistent. Capsule ellipsoid or globose, sometimes compressed, dehiscing by 2–5 valves; pericarp woody or leathery, usually with horizontal striae adaxially. Seeds usually surrounded by glutinous or greasy material.

About 150 species: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sikkim, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; tropical and S Africa (including Madagascar), SW Asia (Yemen), Atlantic Islands (Madeira), Australia, Indian Ocean Islands (Mascarenes, Seychelles), Pacific Islands; 46 species (33 endemic) in China.

Pittosporopsis nervosa Gagnepain (Notul. Syst. (Paris) 13: 136. 1947) was transferred to Pittosporum by Gowda, as P. nervosum (Gagnepain) Gowda (J. Arnold Arbor. 32: 327. 1951). As well as the type specimen from Vietnam, Poilane 25530 (holotype, P), Gowda cited a collection from S Yunnan (Simao Xian), Henry 11778B (NY). However, Chang and Yan (Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1974(2): 43. 1974) demonstrated that Gagnepain’s protologue, as well as the collection Henry 11778 (IBSC), also from Simao Xian, clearly belongs to Pittosporopsis in the Icacinaceae.

Pittosporum yunnanense Franchet (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 415. 1886) is Osmanthus yunnanensis (Franchet) P. S. Green in the Oleaceae (see Fl. China 15: 291. 1996).


1 Placentas (2 or)3–5, in middle part of capsule valves; capsule dehiscing by (2 or)3–5 valves; inflorescences umbellate.   (2)
+ Placentas 2, at base or in proximal part of capsule valves, slightly connate at base; capsule ± compressed, dehiscing by 2 valves; inflorescences umbellate or paniculate, rarely racemose.   (21)
       
2 (1) Placentas 2; capsule usually dehiscing by 2(or 3) valves.   (3)
+ Placentas 3–5; capsule dehiscing by 3–5 valves.   (8)
       
3 (2) Ovary and capsule pubescent.   (4)
+ Ovary and capsule glabrous.   (6)
       
4 (3) Young branchlets glabrous.   15 P. elevaticostatum
+ Young branchlets pubescent.   (5)
       
5 (4) Sepals erect, 3–4 mm; petals free, ca. 8 mm; leaf blade 3–5 × 1–1.7 cm.   16 P. parvilimbum
+ Sepals reflexed, ca. 2 mm; petals united below middle, ca. 10 mm; leaf blade 3–7 × 1.5–2.5 cm.   17 P. reflexisepalum
       
6 (3) Capsule valves ca. 1 mm thick.   20 P. perglabratum
+ Capsule valves ca. 0.4 mm thick.   (7)
       
7 (6) Funicles 6–8 on each capsule valve, in pairs along middle of placenta, creamy yellow, slender, flat, 1–2 mm; capsule cylindric, 1.4–1.5 cm; leaf blade narrowly lanceolate or narrowly oblong, 7–12 × 1.5–2.5 cm.   18 P. henryi
+ Funicles 2 on each capsule valve, dark brown, short, knoblike; capsule ellipsoid, 1–1.2 cm; leaf blade broadly elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 6–10 × 2.5–4 cm.   19 P. merrillianum
       
8 (2) Capsule valves woody, 1–2.5 mm thick; seeds 2–4 mm.   (9)
+ Capsule valves thinly leathery, less than 1 mm thick; seeds 3–7 mm.   (14)
       
9 (8) Seeds more than 30; capsule valves 3–5, 2–2.5 mm thick; ovary pubescent.   1 P. crispulum
+ Seeds fewer than 25; capsule valves usually 3, less than 2 mm thick; ovary pubescent or glabrous.   (10)
       
10 (9) Capsule globose, 1.2–2 cm; ovary pubescent or glabrous.   (11)
+ Capsule ellipsoid or ovoid, less than 1.5 x 1 cm; ovary pubescent.   (12)
       
11 (10) Capsule 1.5–2 cm in diam., glabrous, apex acute.   2 P. rehderianum
+ Capsule ca. 1.2 cm in diam., pubescent, apex rounded or obtuse.   3 P. tobira
       
12 (10) Capsule valves 1.5–2 mm thick; seeds 4–8; sepals ca. 2.5 mm.   4 P. xylocarpum
+ Capsule valves ca. 1 mm thick; seeds ca. 15; sepals 4–7 mm.   (13)
       
13 (12) Leaf blade 6–11 × 2–4 cm; sepals 6–7 mm; capsule ca. 1.2 cm.   5 P. subulisepalum
+ Leaf blade 5–8 × 1.5–2.5 cm; sepals 4–5 mm; capsule 1.3–1.8 cm.   6 P. pauciflorum
       
14 (8) Capsule globose or slightly trigonous-globose.   14 P. illicioides
+ Capsule ellipsoid, obovoid, or long cylindric.   (15)
       
15 (14) Ovary glabrous or sparsely puberulous.   (16)
+ Ovary densely pubescent.   (18)
       
16 (15) Capsule with 3 prominent abaxial sutures.   7 P. perryanum
+ Capsule without prominent abaxial sutures.   (17)
       
17 (16) Ovary slightly puberulous or glabrous; ovules 8–9; seeds 3–4 mm.   8 P. omeiense
+ Ovary glabrous; ovules ca. 18; seeds 5–6 mm.   9 P. glabratum
       
18 (15) Capsule 2–3 cm.   (19)
+ Capsule less than 1.5 cm.   (20)
       
19 (18) Capsule stipe ca. 5 mm; petals 1.5–1.8 cm.   10 P. podocarpum
+ Capsule stipe 1–2 mm; petals 1–1.2 cm.   11 P. trigonocarpum
       
20 (18) Leaf blade elliptic or narrowly oblong.   12 P. kweichowense
+ Leaf blade lanceolate or oblanceolate.   13 P. parvicapsulare
       
21 (1) Inflorescences compound, corymbose or paniculate.   (22)
+ Inflorescences simple, umbellate, racemose, or corymblike.   (31)
       
22 (21) Inflorescences usually pedunculate, corymbose, appearing paniculate.   (23)
+ Inflorescences usually not pedunculate, umbellate or corymbose.   (27)
       
23 (22) Capsule more than 2 cm, valves more than 2 mm thick; leaf blade obtuse at apex.   42 P. viburnifolium
+ Capsule less than 1 cm, valves less than 1 mm thick; leaf blade acute at apex.   (24)
       
24 (23) Seeds 2–4(or 5); placentas at base of capsule valves.   (25)
+ Seeds 5–16; placentas in lower part of capsule valves.   (26)
       
25 (24) Leaf blade 4–6 cm wide; inflorescences 6–10 cm; young branchlets glabrous.   43 P. paniculiferum
+ Leaf blade 2–4 cm wide; inflorescences 4–6 cm; young branchlets pubescent.   44 P. kerrii
       
26 (24) Leaf blade oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 4–8 cm wide; seeds 5–8.   45 P. napaulense
+ Leaf blade obovate or oblong-obovate, 3–5 cm wide; seeds 10–16.   46 P. pentandrum
       
27 (22) Leaf blade oblong or elliptic, 10–20 × 4–8 cm; inflorescences more than 5 cm.   37 P. daphniphylloides
+ Leaf blade obovate-oblong, oblanceolate, or oblong-oblanceolate, 8–15 × 2–6 cm; inflorescences 3–4 cm.   (28)
       
28 (27) Seeds ca. 4; placentas at base of capsule valves; leaf blade obovate-oblong, 4–6 cm wide.   38 P. kwangsiense
+ Seeds more than 6; placentas in middle part of capsule valves; leaf blade obovate- lanceolate, 2–5 cm wide.   (29)
       
29 (28) Lateral veins more than 12-paired; seeds 6–8.   39 P. undulatifolium
+ Lateral veins fewer than 10-paired; seeds 7–16 or more.   (30)
       
30 (29) Capsule 8–9 mm in diam.; seeds more than 16.   40 P. johnstonianum
+ Capsule 7–8 mm in diam; seeds 7–10.   41 P. brevicalyx
       
31 (21) Capsule valves woody, 1–3 mm thick.   (32)
+ Capsule valves thinly woody, less than 1 mm thick.   (33)
       
32 (31) Leaf blade obovate-lanceolate, 7–10 × 2–3 cm; capsule 1.3–1.6 cm in diam.; seeds 16–24.   21 P. lenticellatum
+ Leaf blade oblanceolate, 4–6 × 1–2 cm; capsule 1–1.2 cm in diam.; seeds 10–12.   22 P. planilobum
       
33 (31) Capsule ellipsoid, long pear-shaped, or obovoid, more than 1 cm.   (34)
+ Capsule globose or compressed globose, less than 1 cm.   (36)
       
34 (33) Young branchlets and inflorescences brown pubescent; inflorescences densely flowered.   24 P. balansae
+ Young branchlets and inflorescences glabrous; inflorescences sparsely flowered.   (35)
       
35 (34) Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, falcate, 10–23 × 0.7–1.8(–2.2) cm; sepals ovate, ca. 3 mm.   25 P. qinlingense
+ Leaf blade oblong or oblanceolate, 7–12 × 2.5–4.5 cm; sepals triangular-ovate, ca. 2 mm.   23 P. tenuivalvatum
       
36 (33) Young branchlets pubescent or puberulous.   (37)
+ Young branchlets glabrous.   (41)
       
37 (36) Petals connate; leaf blade 2–3.5 × ca. 1 cm, apex obtuse; seeds ca. 4.   26 P. saxicola
+ Petals free; leaf blade 2.5–9 × 0.3–3.5 cm, apex acute or acuminate; seeds 4–18.   (38)
       
38 (37) Leaf blade 2.5–6 × 0.3–0.8 cm, apex acuminate.   27 P. angustilimbum
+ Leaf blade 6–9 × 2–3.5 cm, apex acute.   (39)
       
39 (38) Inflorescences racemose; seeds ca. 4; leaf veins indistinct.   28 P. tonkinense
+ Inflorescences umbellate; seeds 8–18; leaf veins distinct.   (40)
       
40 (39) Leaf blade rhombic or obovate, apex shortly acute; seeds 16–18; young branchlets gray pubescent.   29 P. truncatum
+ Leaf blade oblong, apex acute; seeds 8–10; young branchlets brown pubescent.   30 P. fulvipilosum
       
41 (36) Leaf blade linear, lanceolate, or oblong, widest below middle.   (42)
+ Leaf blade obovate or oblanceolate, widest above middle.   (43)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade linear or narrowly lanceolate, sometimes oblanceolate; petals connate.   35 P. heterophyllum
+ Leaf blade oblong or lanceolate; petals free.   36 P. leptosepalum
       
43 (41) Leaf blade 3–6 cm, apex rounded.   31 P. pulchrum
+ Leaf blade 6–12 cm, apex acute.   (44)
       
44 (43) Inflorescences glabrous; sepals connate, forming a shallow cup, glabrous; petals connate.   34 P. tubiflorum
+ Inflorescences pubescent; sepals free.   (45)
       
45 (44) Inflorescences with scalelike leaves at base; sepals pubescent; petals free.   32 P. kunmingense
+ Inflorescences without scalelike leaves at base; sepals glabrous; petals connate proximally.   33 P. oligophlebium

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    A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar  
  • Living Plant (Flowers): Schatz 2392 (G.E. Schatz)
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  • Living Plant (Fruits): Schatz 1262 (G.E. Schatz)
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  • Living Plant image: RAKOTOVAO 3297 (Charles Rakotovao)
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