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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae

171. Setaria P. Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 51. 1812.

狗尾草属 gou wei cao shu

Authors: Shou-liang Chen & Sylvia M. Phillips

Chaetochloa Scribner, nom. rej.

Annuals or perennials. Culms usually tufted, slender to robust or canelike. Leaf blades linear to lanceolate, sometimes plicate or narrowed to a false petiole; ligule ciliate from a membranous base. Inflorescence a panicle, dense and spikelike or open with the spikelets contracted around the primary branches; spikelets (or some of them) subtended by one to several bristles which persist on the branches after the spikelets fall. Spikelets elliptic, plano-convex, sometimes gibbous, awnless, florets 2; glumes and lower lemma membranous to herbaceous; lower glume ovate from a clasping base, usually less than 1/2 spikelet length, 3–5-veined; upper glume half as long to equaling spikelet, several-veined; lower floret staminate or neuter, sometimes sulcate, its palea present, reduced or absent; upper lemma crustaceous, strongly convex, rugose, punctate or smooth, margins inrolled. x = 9.

About 130 species: tropics and subtropics, extending to warm-temperate regions of the world; 14 species (three endemic, one introduced) in China.

The bristles in the inflorescence represent modified branchlets. The genus includes pasture grasses, a cereal crop, and a few noxious weeds.

1 Panicle open to contracted with obvious, spaced branches; spikelets usually subtended by a solitary bristle (some lacking a bristle, or rarely with up to 3)   (2)
+ Panicle densely spikelike with congested branchlets, sometimes lobed; spikelets subtended by several to many bristles   (8)
2 (1) Leaf blades plicate, fusiform-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, narrowed toward base   (3)
+ Leaf blades flat, not plicate, linear or linear-lanceolate, straight or rounded at base   (4)
3 (2) Leaf blades 2–7 cm wide; panicle branches up to 20 cm long; lower glume 1/3–1/2 spikelet length, usually acute to obtuse; lower lemma with narrow falcate apex, longer than upper lemma.   1 S. palmifolia
+ Leaf blades 1–3 cm wide; panicle branches up to 8 cm long; lower glume 1/4–1/3 spikelet length, usually broadly obtuse to truncate; lower lemma equaling upper lemma.   2 S. plicata
4 (2) Upper glume subequaling spikelet; only branch or branchlet tips extending into a bristle, rarely a solitary bristle below a few spikelets.   3 S. yunnanensis
+ Upper glume distinctly shorter than spikelet; most spikelets subtended by one or more bristles   (5)
5 (4) Tufted annual; upper lemma coarsely rugose.   4 S. intermedia
+ Perennials, sometimes rhizomatous; upper lemma smooth or finely punctate-rugose   (6)
6 (5) Plant tufted; bristles stiff, stout; lower floret usually staminate with well-developed palea.   5 S. forbesiana
+ Plant with long scaly rhizomes; bristles slender; lower floret neuter with reduced palea   (7)
7 (6) Spikelets elliptic; lower lemma equal to spikelet; upper lemma smooth, shiny.   6 S. chondrachne
+ Spikelets lanceolate; lower lemma slightly shorter than spikelet; upper lemma punctate-rugulose.   7 S. guizhouensis
8 (1) Each branchlet from the main axis with only one mature spikelet; upper glume up to 1/2 as long as spikelet, upper floret clearly exposed   (9)
+ Each branchlet from the main axis with several mature spikelets; upper glume 2/3 as long to equaling spikelet   (10)
9 (8) Spikelets (2.2–)2.5–3.5 mm; lower floret often staminate, its palea ovate, as wide as upper floret; upper lemma coarsely rugose.   8 S. pumila
+ Spikelets 1.8–2.3(–2.5) mm; lower floret neuter, its palea lanceolate, much narrower than upper floret; upper lemma finely rugose.   9 S. parviflora
10 (8) Upper glume 2/3–3/4 length of fertile floret, upper lemma exposed above it; spikelets 2.8–3 mm, acute.   10 S. faberi
+ Upper glume subequaling fertile floret, almost completely covering upper lemma; spikelets 2–2.5(–3) mm, usually obtuse   (11)
11 (10) Upper floret falling free from the glumes and lower lemma at maturity; cultivated plant.   11 S. italica
+ Upper floret retained within spikelet, this falling whole; wild plants   (12)
12 (11) Bristles retrorsely scabrous.   14 S. verticillata
+ Bristles antrorsely scabrous   (13)
13 (12) Spikelets 2–2.5 mm; lower glume 1/4–1/3 as long as the spikelet, usually obtuse.   12 S. viridis
+ Spikelets 2.5–3 mm; lower glume ca. 1/2 as long as the spikelet, acuminate.   13 S. arenaria

  • List of lower taxa


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