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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 8 | Brassicaceae

90. Sisymbrium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 657. 1753.

大蒜芥属 da suan jie shu

Sisymbrium brassiciforme

Credit: Photo: Al-Shehbaz

Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, rarely subshrubs. Trichomes absent or simple. Stems erect, rarely prostrate or decumbent, often branched apically. Basal leaves petiolate, rosulate or not, simple, entire or variously pinnately dissected. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile, often similar to basal. Racemes ebracteate or rarely bracteate, often elongated considerably in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender or thickened and nearly as wide as fruit. Sepals ovate or oblong, erect or spreading, base of lateral pair sometimes subsaccate. Petals yellow, white, pink, or purple, obovate, spatulate, oblong, or suborbicular, apex obtuse or emarginate; claw often subequaling or longer than sepals. Stamens 6, tetradynamous; filaments not dilated at base; anthers oblong, obtuse at apex. Nectar glands confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median glands present. Ovules 6-160 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear or rarely lanceolate or subulate, terete or rarely slightly latiseptate; valves papery to subleathery, with a prominent midvein and 2 conspicuous marginal veins, smooth or torulose; replum rounded; septum complete, membranous or rarely thickened, translucent or opaque, veinless or with a midvein; style cylindric, conical, or clavate, persistent, rarely obsolete; stigma capitate, 2-lobed, lobes not decurrent. Seeds uniseriate, wingless, oblong or ovate, plump; seed coat reticulate or papillate, not mucilaginous when wetted; cotyledons incumbent or obliquely so.

About 40 species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, a few species in S Africa and the New World; ten species (one endemic, one introduced) in China.

1 Fruit subulate-linear, (0.7-)1-1.4(-1.8) cm, appressed to rachis   10 S. officinale
+ Fruit narrowly linear, (2-)3-14 cm, not appressed to rachis.   (2)
2 (1) Fruiting pedicels about as thick as mature fruit.   (3)
+ Fruiting pedicels narrower than fruit.   (4)
3 (2) Uppermost leaves simple or hastate, not divided into linear segments; sepals not cucullate; fruiting pedicels (2-)3-6 mm   6 S. orientale
+ Uppermost leaves pinnatisect into linear lobes; sepals cucullate; fruiting pedicels (4-)6-10(-13) mm   5 S. altissimum
4 (2) Perennials; sepals subapically cucullate; lowermost flowers bracteate.   (5)
+ Annuals, if perennial then uppermost leaves filiform to narrowly linear; sepals not cucullate; flowers ebracteate.   (6)
5 (4) Fruit terete, torulose; sepals 3.5-5.5(-7) mm; petals 6-8(-10) × 1-1.5 mm; filaments 3-5(-6) mm; anthers 1-1.5 mm; middle leaves often lobed or hastate basally   9 S. yunnanense
+ Fruit subquadrangular, not torulose; sepals 7-9 mm; petals 12-16 × 2.5-3.5 mm; filaments 6-10 mm; anthers 2-3 mm; middle leaves not lobed or hastate basally   8 S. luteum
6 (4) Perennials; uppermost leaves filiform to narrowly linear, to 5 mm wide   7 S. polymorphum
+ Annuals; uppermost leaves variously-shaped, sometimes lobed, never filiform or narrowly linear, wider.   (7)
7 (6) Fruit recurved or divaricate, very rarely ascending, (5-)6-10(-12) cm.   (8)
+ Fruit erect or ascending, 2-4(-5) cm.   (9)
8 (7) Sepals 4-6 mm; petals 6-10(-12) mm; basal leaves often fleshy; fruiting pedicels stout   3 S. brassiciforme
+ Sepals 2.5-3.5 mm; petals 3-5 mm; basal leaves not fleshy; fruiting pedicels slender, nearly filiform   4 S. heteromallum
9 (7) Young fruit overtopping flowers; petals 2.5-3.5(-4) mm; plants glabrous or sparsely pubescent   1 S. irio
+ Young fruit not overtopping flowers; petals 6-8 mm; plants usually densely hispid at least below   2 S. loeselii

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