All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 13 Page 321, 335 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Myrtaceae

10. Syzygium P. Browne ex Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 166. 1788.

蒲桃属 pu tao shu

Acmena Candolle; Caryophyllus Linnaeus (1753), not Miller (1754); Cleistocalyx Blume; Jambosa Adanson, nom. cons.

Trees or shrubs. Branchlets sometimes 2-4-ridged, usually glabrous. Leaves opposite or sometimes whorled, petiolate to subsessile; leaf blade densely to sometimes sparsely pinnately veined. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, usually panicles of cymes, 3- to many-flowered; bracts small, caducous after flowering. Flowers stipitate or not. Hypanthium obconic or sometimes clavate. Calyx lobes 4 or 5 or rarely more, usually short, caducous or persistent, apex usually obtuse, rarely connate and then calyptrate. Petals 4 or 5 or rarely more, distinct and then expanding separately or coherent and then caducous as a unit. Stamens numerous, distinct but occasionally slightly adhering at base; anthers minute, versatile, 2-celled, cells parallel or divergent, dehiscing longitudinally or by a short terminal slit; connectives usually terminating in an apical gland. Ovary inferior, 2 or 3-loculed; ovules many per locule. Style linear. Fruit drupaceous, 1(or 2)-seeded. Seeds sometimes with or without a testa, often with a pseudotesta ± adhering to pericarp, rarely with intrusive branching tissue extending into and interlocking cotyledons; embryo usually uniembryonic, sometimes polyembryonic.

About 1200 species: tropical Africa, subtropical to tropical Asia, Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Pacific islands; 80 species (45 endemic, two introduced) in China.

Syzygium is treated here in a broad sense with Acmena and Cleistocalyx included within it. Morphological and anatomical investigations, and molecular sequence studies of chloroplast and nuclear regions, provide support for such an expanded concept (Amer. J. Bot. 59: 423-436. 1972; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 92: 433-489. 1972; Proc. Fourth Fl. Mal. Symp. 75-85. 2001; Austral. Syst. Bot. 17: 63-72. 2004; Taxon 55: 79-94. 2006).

In addition to the cultivated species treated here, both Syzygium aqueum (N. L. Burman) Alston (Eugenia aquea N. L. Burman) and S. grande (Wight) Walpers (E. grandis Wight) have been recorded as being cultivated in China.

Flowers are not known in Syzygium album, S. buxifolioideum, S. guangxiense, S. hainanense, S. jienfunicum, S. lasianthifolium, S. melanophyllum, and S. wenshanense.

Fruit are not known in Syzygium bubengense, S. cathayense, S. gongshanense, S. infrarubiginosum, S. laosense var. quocense, S. paucivenium, S. rockii, S. saxatile, S. sichuanense, and S. xizangense.


1 Calyx calyptrate   (2)
+ Calyx lobes distinct   (3)
       
2 (1) Leaf blade oblong to elliptic, secondary veins 8 or 9 on each side of midvein; inflorescences axillary.   2 S. nervosum
+ Leaf blade ovate to obovate, secondary veins 2-5 on each side of midvein; inflorescences terminal.   3 S. conspersipunctatum
       
3 (1) Petals coherent, falling as a cap at anthesis   (4)
+ Petals distinct   (52)
       
4 (3) Inflorescences axillary or lateral below leaves   (5)
+ Inflorescences terminal   (25)
       
5 (4) Branchlets quadrate or quadrangular   (6)
+ Branchlets terete or compressed   (14)
       
6 (5) Hypanthium clavate   (7)
+ Hypanthium obconic or pyriform, not clavate   (9)
       
7 (6) Hypanthium ca. 2 cm.   15 S. taiwanicum
+ Hypanthium to 1.2 cm   (8)
       
8 (7) Branchlets grayish white when dry; petiole 2-3 mm.   16 S. championii
+ Branchlets blackish brown when dry; petiole 9-14 mm.   42 S. rockii
       
9 (6) Branchlets gray or grayish white when dry   (10)
+ Branchlets blackish brown or dark brown when dry   (12)
       
10 (9) Leaf blade narrowly elliptic.   29 S. salwinense
+ Leaf blade elliptic, obovate, obovate-elliptic, or oblong   (11)
       
11 (10) Leaf blade 12-18 cm.   25 S. tetragonum
+ Leaf blade 4.5-6 cm.   72 S. formosanum
       
12 (9) Petiole 3-6 mm.   30 S. sterrophyllum
+ Petiole 10-18 mm   (13)
       
13 (12) Flower buds ca. 5 mm; calyx lobes inconspicuous.   31 S. forrestii
+ Flower buds 8-9 mm; calyx lobes 1-1.5 mm.   42 S. rockii
       
14 (5) Hypanthium clavate or shortly clavate   (15)
+ Hypanthium obconic, long pyriform, or campanulate, not clavate   (18)
       
15 (14) Style 15-20 mm.   21 S. claviflorum
+ Style 3-5 mm   (16)
       
16 (15) Leaf blade intramarginal veins 3-4 mm from margin; hypanthium 6-8 mm.   20 S. baviense
+ Leaf blade intramarginal veins near margin; hypanthium 10-12 mm   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 75° from midvein, apex acute.   18 S. rysopodum
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 40° from midvein, apex acuminate.   19 S. stenocladum
       
18 (14) Leaf blade intramarginal veins 2-3 mm from margin   (19)
+ Leaf blade intramarginal veins usually 1(-1.5) mm or less from margin   (20)
       
19 (18) Branchlets grayish white when dry; secondary veins 11-13 on each side of midvein.   27 S. balsameum
+ Branchlets light brown when dry; secondary veins 8 or 9 on each side of midvein.   46 S. simile
       
20 (18) Petiole 3-5 mm; stamens 7-8 mm.   50 S. kwangtungense
+ Petiole 7-20 mm; stamens 3-6 mm   (21)
       
21 (20) Branchlets grayish white or gray when dry   (22)
+ Branchlets dark brown, blackish brown, red, or brown when dry   (23)
       
22 (21) Leaf blade 6-12 cm.   57 S. cumini
+ Leaf blade 4.5-6 cm.   72 S. formosanum
       
23 (21) Leaf oil glands sparse.   31 S. forrestii
+ Leaf oil glands numerous   (24)
       
24 (23) Leaf blade 4-7 × 2.4-3.5 cm.   56 S. rehderianum
+ Leaf blade 9-12 × 4-6 cm.   76 S. oblatum
       
25 (4) Hypanthium clavate   (26)
+ Hypanthium obconic, funnel-shaped, or campanulate   (30)
       
26 (25) Leaf blade secondary veins 6-10 mm apart.   11 S. austroyunnanense
+ Leaf blade secondary veins to 3 mm apart   (27)
       
27 (26) Branchlets terete or compressed   (28)
+ Branchlets quadrate or quadrangular   (29)
       
28 (27) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 75° from midvein; branchlets brown when dry   18 S. rysopodum
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 40° from midvein; branchlets grayish white when dry.   19 S. stenocladum
       
29 (27) Petiole 2-3 mm; branchlets grayish white when dry; leaf blade adaxially dull when dry.   16 S. championii
+ Petiole ca. 10 mm; branchlets blackish brown when dry; leaf blade adaxially glossy when dry.   42 S. rockii
       
30 (25) Branchlets quadrate or 4-angled or quadrangular   (31)
+ Branchlets terete or compressed   (35)
       
31 (30) Leaf blade secondary veins 6-10 mm apart.   11 S. austroyunnanense
+ Leaf blade secondary veins to 3 mm apart   (32)
       
32 (31) Petiole ca. 10 mm; leaf blade elliptic to obovate   (33)
+ Petiole to 5 mm; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, linear, or narrowly oblong   (34)
       
33 (32) Branchlets blackish brown when dry; leaf blade 8-10 cm.   42 S. rockii
+ Branchlets grayish white when dry; leaf blade 5-6 cm.   68 S. euphlebium
       
34 (32) Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, base slightly cordate.   32 S. tephrodes
+ Leaf blade linear to narrowly oblong, base rounded to slightly obtuse.   36 S. tsoongii
       
35 (30) Leaf blade base rounded to slightly cordate.   51 S. bullockii
+ Leaf blade base cuneate, obtuse, or attenuate   (36)
       
36 (35) Petiole to 5 mm   (37)
+ Petiole more than 5 mm   (44)
       
37 (36) Leaf blade apex obtuse to rounded   (38)
+ Leaf blade apex acute, acuminate, or caudate-acuminate   (41)
       
38 (37) Stamens 4-8 mm   (39)
+ Stamens to 3 mm   (40)
       
39 (38) Leaf blade elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 5-8 cm, base broadly cuneate to obtuse.   50 S. kwangtungense
+ Leaf blade elliptic to obovate-oblong, 3-5 cm, base cuneate.   52 S. paucivenium
       
40 (38) Leaf blade secondary veins 6-9 mm apart.   23 S. cinereum
+ Leaf blade secondary veins to 3 mm apart.   70 S. howii
       
41 (37) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of 40°-45° from midvein   (42)
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of more than 50° from midvein   (43)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade 3-7 cm, abaxially olive green when dry.   47 S. odoratum
+ Leaf blade 8-12 cm, abaxially pale brown when dry.   55 S. myrsinifolium
       
43 (41) Hypanthium ca. 3 mm; petals 2-3 mm.   50 S. kwangtungense
+ Hypanthium 4-5 mm; petals ca. 5 mm.   76 S. oblatum
       
44 (36) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of 40°-45° from midvein   (45)
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at ca. 60° or more from midvein   (46)
       
45 (44) Leaf blade secondary veins 6-9 mm apart; hypanthium ca. 3.5 mm.   23 S. cinereum
+ Leaf blade secondary veins ca. 1.5 mm apart; hypanthium 4-7 mm.   55 S. myrsinifolium
       
46 (44) Leaf blade apex usually obtuse to slightly acuminate   (47)
+ Leaf blade apex acuminate   (48)
       
47 (46) Petiole 1.5-2 cm; leaf blade 6-8 cm.   54 S. densinervium var. insulare
+ Petiole 0.8-1.2 cm; leaf blade 4.5-6 cm.   72 S. formosanum
       
48 (46) Hypanthium ca. 2 mm; secondary veins less than 1 mm apart.   49 S. chunianum
+ Hypanthium 3-5 mm; secondary veins more than 2 mm apart   (49)
       
49 (48) Leaf blade 5-6 cm.   68 S. euphlebium
+ Leaf blade 9-14 cm   (50)
       
50 (49) Leaf blade base rounded to broadly cuneate.   76 S. oblatum
+ Leaf blade base cuneate   (51)
       
51 (50) Leaf blade oblong to ovate-lanceolate, abaxially dark brown when dry.   45 S. kusukusense
+ Leaf blade elliptic, abaxially green when dry.   53 S. toddalioides
       
52 (3) Inflorescences axillary or lateral below leaves   (53)
+ Inflorescences terminal or subterminal   (83)
       
53 (52) Branchlets quadrate or quadrangular   (54)
+ Branchlets terete or compressed   (60)
       
54 (53) Hypanthium clavate, 1.3-2 cm   (55)
+ Hypanthium not clavate, less than 0.8 cm   (56)
       
55 (54) Petiole 4-5 mm; leaf blade base broadly cuneate; hypanthium ca. 2 cm.   15 S. taiwanicum
+ Petiole very short (leaves sometimes nearly sessile); leaf blade base usually slightly cordate; hypanthium ca. 1.3 cm.   17 S. boisianum
       
56 (54) Petiole to 5 mm   (57)
+ Petiole more than 7 mm   (58)
       
57 (56) Leaf blade apex acuminate.   34 S. tenuirhachis
+ Leaf blade apex obtuse to slightly acute.   38 S. grijsii
       
58 (56) Leaf blade secondary veins 8-10 mm apart, apex slightly acute.   13 S. cathayense
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 2-3 mm apart or dense, apex acuminate   (59)
       
59 (58) Flower buds ca. 5 mm.   31 S. forrestii
+ Flower buds 8-9 mm.   42 S. rockii
       
60 (53) Leaf blade apex obtuse, rounded, or acute   (61)
+ Leaf blade apex acuminate   (69)
       
61 (60) Leaf blade secondary veins more than 6 mm apart   (62)
+ Leaf blade secondary veins to 5 mm apart   (65)
       
62 (61) Style 4-5 mm.   28 S. xizangense
+ Style 15-30 mm   (63)
       
63 (62) Leaf blade secondary veins 8-12 on each side of midvein.   5 S. polypetaloideum
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 14-25 on each side of midvein   (64)
       
64 (63) Petals 10-13 mm.   6 S. samarangense
+ Petals ca. 3 mm.   21 S. claviflorum
       
65 (61) Petiole 9-14 mm   (66)
+ Petiole to 7 mm   (67)
       
66 (65) Hypanthium broadly obconic, ca. 1 cm; stamens 10-13 mm.   12 S. malaccense
+ Hypanthium clavate, 1-1.2 cm; stamens 1-4 mm.   18 S. rysopodum
       
67 (65) Petals ca. 1 mm; hypanthium ca. 1.5 mm.   61 S. hancei
+ Petals 2.5-4 mm; hypanthium 3-3.5 mm   (68)
       
68 (67) Petiole ca. 2 mm; leaf blade linear-lanceolate.   59 S. fluviatile
+ Petiole 5-7 mm; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-elliptic.   74 S. levinei
       
69 (60) Petals 8-15 mm   (70)
+ Petals 1-6 mm   (73)
       
70 (69) Hypanthium clavate.   19 S. stenocladum
+ Hypanthium obconic   (71)
       
71 (70) Stamens ca. 0.6 cm.   31 S. forrestii
+ Stamens 1.5-2.8 cm   (72)
       
72 (71) Calyx lobes 5-8 mm; secondary veins 8-25 on each side of midvein.   4 S. jambos
+ Calyx lobes ca. 3 mm; secondary veins 8-12 on each side of midvein.   5 S. polypetaloideum
       
73 (69) Hypanthium clavate or shortly clavate   (74)
+ Hypanthium obconic, turbinate, semiglobose, or broadly funnel-shaped   (76)
       
74 (73) Leaf blade 1-1.5 cm wide; hypanthium ca. 7 mm.   64 S. araiocladum
+ Leaf blade 2-8 cm wide; hypanthium 8-15 mm   (75)
       
75 (74) Leaf blade base usually slightly cordate; style ca. 5 mm.   17 S. boisianum
+ Leaf blade base broadly cuneate; style 15-20 mm.   21 S. claviflorum
       
76 (73) Petals 4-6 mm   (77)
+ Petals 1-3 mm   (79)
       
77 (76) Leaf blade secondary veins 12-16 on each side of midvein and 5-7 mm apart.   14 S. gongshanense
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 9-12 on each side of midvein and 8-16 mm apart   (78)
       
78 (77) Calyx lobes ca. 3 mm; leaf blade abaxially brownish when dry, secondary veins at an angle of ca. 55° from midvein.   8 S. laosense var. quocense
+ Calyx lobes 1.5-2 mm; leaf blade abaxially pale green when dry, secondary veins at an angle of ca. 75° from midvein.   28 S. xizangense
       
79 (76) Branchlets gray or grayish white when dry   (80)
+ Branchlets rufescent brown to dark brown when dry   (81)
       
80 (79) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of 45° from midvein and 8-13 mm apart.   24 S. yunnanense
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle ca. 60° from midvein and 2-3 mm apart.   60 S. euonymifolium
       
81 (79) Stamens 1.5-2.5 mm; style to 2.5 mm.   58 S. fruticosum
+ Stamens 4-8 mm; style 6-8 mm   (82)
       
82 (81) Petiole 10-15 mm; leaf blade base narrowly cuneate.   77 S. nanpingense
+ Petiole 5-8 mm; leaf blade base broadly cuneate.   78 S. bubengense
       
83 (52) Branchlets quadrate or quadrangular   (84)
+ Branchlets terete or compressed   (94)
       
84 (83) Petiole 10-15 mm   (85)
+ Petiole 1-5 mm   (87)
       
85 (84) Calyx lobes 3-4 mm.   11 S. austroyunnanense
+ Calyx lobes 0.5-1.5 mm   (86)
       
86 (85) Leaf blade elliptic, 8-10 cm, adaxially olive green and glossy when dry.   42 S. rockii
+ Leaf blade obovate to elliptic, 5-6 cm, adaxially dark olive green and dull when dry.   68 S. euphlebium
       
87 (84) Hypanthium ca. 13 mm.   17 S. boisianum
+ Hypanthium 2-3.5 mm   (88)
       
88 (87) Leaf blade 1.5-3 cm   (89)
+ Leaf blade (2.5-)3-10 cm   (90)
       
89 (88) Stamens and style ca. 2.5 mm.   37 S. buxifolium
+ Stamens and style ca. 5 mm.   38 S. grijsii
       
90 (88) Leaf blade elliptic to narrowly elliptic   (91)
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate, narrowly oblong, oblong, or ovate-oblong   (92)
       
91 (90) Leaf blade adaxially blackish brown when dry, base cuneate, apex acuminate.   43 S. szemaoense
+ Leaf blade adaxially greenish brown when dry, base broadly cuneate, apex acute to slightly obtuse.   44 S. austrosinense
       
92 (90) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 45° from midvein.   41 S. handelii
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of 60°-70° from midvein   (93)
       
93 (92) Leaf blade base broadly cuneate, apex acuminate.   34 S. tenuirhachis
+ Leaf blade base cuneate, apex caudate-acuminate.   40 S. sichuanense
       
94 (83) Branchlets pubescent; hypanthium villosulous.   22 S. vestitum
+ Branchlets glabrous; hypanthium glabrous   (95)
       
95 (94) Hypanthium clavate or shortly clavate   (96)
+ Hypanthium obconic, campanulate, ellipsoid, or semiglobose   (99)
       
96 (95) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 40° from midvein.   19 S. stenocladum
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of 70°-85° from midvein   (97)
       
97 (96) Leaf blade base suborbicular to obtuse, secondary veins at an angle of 80°-85° from midvein.   65 S. zeylanicum
+ Leaf blade base cuneate to broadly cuneate, secondary veins at an angle of 70°-75° from midvein   (98)
       
98 (97) Petiole 9-14 mm.   18 S. rysopodum
+ Petiole 2-3 mm.   64 S. araiocladum
       
99 (95) Hypanthium 6-20 mm   (100)
+ Hypanthium 2-5 mm   (106)
       
100 (99) Calyx lobes 5-8 mm   (101)
+ Calyx lobes 1-4 mm   (103)
       
101 (100) Petals ca. 2 cm.   7 S. megacarpum
+ Petals 0.7-1.5 cm   (102)
       
102 (101) Leaf blade apex acuminate to long acuminate.   4 S. jambos
+ Leaf blade apex acute.   9 S. globiflorum
       
103 (100) Stamens 1.5-2 cm; calyx lobes 3-4 mm   (104)
+ Stamens 0.4-0.8 cm; calyx lobes 1-3 mm   (105)
       
104 (103) Shrubs 2-3 m tall; petiole 4-6 mm; leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 cm wide.   5 S. polypetaloideum
+ Trees to 12 m tall; petiole less than 4 mm; leaf blade elliptic to oblong, 5-8 cm wide.   6 S. samarangense
       
105 (103) Leaf blade adaxially grayish brown when dry, base broadly cuneate and slightly oblique.   8 S. laosense
+ Leaf blade adaxially olive green when dry, base cuneate.   10 S. imitans
       
106 (99) Petiole 10-15 mm   (107)
+ Petiole 2-8 mm   (111)
       
107 (106) Leaf blade secondary veins 8-13 mm apart.   24 S. yunnanense
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 1-2 mm apart   (108)
       
108 (107) Leaf blade base obtuse to broadly cuneate and usually oblique, or wide and obtuse   (109)
+ Leaf blade base cuneate   (110)
       
109 (108) Stamens ca. 3 mm; leaf blade adaxially blackish brown and dull when dry.   79 S. infrarubiginosum
+ Stamens 5-7 mm; leaf blade adaxially dark brown and glossy when dry.   80 S. lineatum
       
110 (108) Leaf blade elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 8-12 cm.   67 S. brachythyrsum
+ Leaf blade obovate to elliptic, 5-6 cm.   68 S. euphlebium
       
111 (106) Leaf blade apex caudate-acuminate or acuminate   (112)
+ Leaf blade apex obtuse, rounded, acute, or abruptly mucronate   (114)
       
112 (111) Leaf blade elliptic to narrowly elliptic.   43 S. szemaoense
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate   (113)
       
113 (112) Petals ca. 1 mm; stamens ca. 1 mm.   1 S. acuminatissimum
+ Petals ca. 2 mm; stamens 4-5 mm.   40 S. sichuanense
       
114 (111) Stamens 5-8 mm   (115)
+ Stamens 1.5-4 mm   (116)
       
115 (114) Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 45° from midvein.   74 S. levinei
+ Leaf blade secondary veins at an angle of ca. 80° from midvein.   75 S. thumra
       
116 (114) Leaf blade intramarginal veins essentially at margin.   70 S. howii
+ Leaf blade intramarginal veins ca. 1 mm from margin   (117)
       
117 (116) Hypanthium ca. 2 mm; stamens 1.5-2 mm.   71 S. congestiflorum
+ Hypanthium 4-5 mm; stamens 3-4 mm.   73 S. saxatile

  • List of lower taxa


     

    Related Objects  
  • Syzygium.pdf
  • PDF

    A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar  
  • Living Plant image: RAKOTOVAO 2640 (Charles Rakotovao)
  • Image/JPEG

  • Flora of China @ efloras.org
    Browse by
    Volume
    Family
    Genera
    Advanced Search


    Flora of China Home


    Checklist

     

     

     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |