21. Cyrtomium fortunei J. Smith, Ferns Brit. For. 286. 1866.
贯众 guan zhong
Aspidium falcatum (Linnaeus f.) Swartz var. fortunei (J. Smith) Makino; Cyrtomium falcatum (Linnaeus f.) C. Presl var. polypterum (Diels) C. Christensen; C. fortunei f. latipinna Ching; C. fortunei f. polypterum (Diels) Ching; C. recurvum Ching & K. H. Shing ex K. H. Shing; C. shandongense J. X. Li; Phanerophlebia fortunei (J. Smith) Copeland; Polystichum falcatum (Linnaeus f.) Diels var. fortunei (J. Smith) Matsumura; P. falcatum f. polypterum Diels; P. fortunei (J. Smith) Nakai.
Plants 25-50 cm tall. Rhizome erect, densely covered with brown scales. Stipe stramineous, 12-26 cm, 2-3 mm in diam. at base, lower portion densely scaly; scales brown, sometimes with a dark brown central stripe, ovate or lanceolate, dentate. Lamina oblong-lanceolate, 20-42 × 8-14 cm, base not contracted or slightly contracted, 1-imparipinnate, apex obtuse; rachis with sparse lanceolate or linear brown scales. Lateral pinnae 7-16(-29) pairs, alternate, nearly spreading, shortly stalked, lanceolate, ± falcate; middle pinnae 5-8 × 1.2-2 cm, base oblique, acroscopic margins subtruncate and sometimes with weak, blunt auricles, basiscopic margins cuneate, margins entire or sometimes serrulate, apex acuminate or rarely caudate; terminal pinna ovate-lanceolate, sometimes lower portion with 1 or 2 lobes, 3-6 × 1.5-3 cm; papery, glabrous on both surfaces; venation pinnate, slightly raised abaxially, indistinct adaxially, veinlets anastomosing to form 4 or 5 rows of areoles on each side of midrib, each areole with 1 or 2 included free veinlets. Sori throughout abaxial surface of pinnae; indusia grayish, margins entire.
Limestone crevices in open areas or forests; 100-2400 m. Anhui, Chongqing (Fengjie, Nanchuan), Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei (Nanwutai Shan), Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi (Jincheng, Xiushui), Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [NE India (Manipur), Japan, S Korea, Nepal, Thailand, N Vietnam; introduced and locally naturalized in Europe and North America].
Cyrtomium fortunei is an apomictic species.
Sometimes three varieties, Cyrtomium fortunei var. fortunei, C. fortunei var. clivicola (Makino) Tagawa (C. clivicola (Makino) Tagawa), and C. fortunei var. intermedium Tagawa are recognized (e.g., Nakaike, New Fl. Jap. Pterid. 354-456. 1992), but it is obvious that var. intermedium should be recognized as a species, i.e., C. yamamotoi.
Nakaike (loc. cit.: 840) elevated Cyrtomium fortunei f. laetevirens Hiyama (1953) to C. laetevirens (Hiyama) Nakaike. Some additional authors recognize this taxon as a species. Iwashina et al. (Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 34: 14-24. 2006) isolated C-methylflavanones from this taxon with four flavonol glycosides and some C-glycosylflavones, which were not found in C. fortunei. This phytochemical evidence supports the recognition of this taxon. More studies are needed to clarify this taxons status.
Two recently described species, Cyrtomium confertiserratum J. X. Li, H. S. Kung & X. J. Li (Pl. Diversity Resources 34(1): 17. 2012) and C. reflexosquamatum J. X. Li & F. Q. Zhou (Pl. Diversity Resources 34(1): 19. 2012), might be conspecific with C. fortunei, but more studies are needed.