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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Clusiaceae | Cratoxylum

1. Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Loureiro) Blume, Mus. Bot. 2: 17. 1856.

黄牛木 huang niu mu

Hypericum cochinchinense Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 472. 1790; Ancistrolobus ligustrinus Spach; Cratoxylum biflorum (Lamarck) Turczaninow; C. chinense Merrill; C. ligustrinum (Spach) Blume; C. petiolatum Blume; C. polyanthum Korthals; C. polyanthum var. ligustrinum (Spach) Dyer; Elodes chinensis (Retzius) Hance; H. biflorum Lamarck (1797), not Choisy (1821); H. chinense Retzius (1788), not Osbeck (1757), nor Linnaeus (1759); Oxycarpus cochinchinensis Loureiro; Stalagmites erosipetala Miquel.

Shrubs or trees, deciduous, 1.5-18(-25) m tall, glabrous. Trunk with clusters of long thorns on lower part. Bark gray-yellow or gray-brown, smooth or finely striate. Twigs somewhat compressed, glabrous and pink when young, interpetiolar scars not always continuous. Petiole 2-3 mm, glabrous; leaf blade abaxially gray-green, adaxially green, elliptic to oblong or lanceolate, 3-10.5 × 1-4 cm, papery, both surfaces glabrous, abaxially with pellucid or dark glands, midvein abaxially raised, adaxially impressed; secondary veins 8-12 pairs, oblique, not or irregularly joining at the margins; veins and veinlets reticulate, raised on both surfaces, base obtuse to cuneate, apex abruptly acute or acuminate. Cymes axillary or extra-axillary and terminal, (1 or)2 or 3-flowered, pedunculate; peduncles 3-10 mm or longer. Pedicel 2-3 mm. Flowers 1-1.5 cm in diam. Sepals accrescent, oblong, 5-7 × 2-5 mm, with dark linear glands on entire surface, apex rounded. Petals deep crimson to pink or pinkish yellow, obovate, 5-10 × 2.5-5 mm, with dark linear glands between veins, base cuneate, apex rounded; petal-scale absent. Stamen fascicles 4-8 mm, stalk broad to slender, with 40-55 stamens. Fasciclodes oblong to obovate, cucullate, to 3 × 1-1.5 mm, apex thickened and recurved; connective with gland or not. Ovary conic, ca. 3 mm, glabrous; styles ca. 2 mm. Capsule brown, ellipsoid, 0.8-1.2 cm × 4-5 mm, to 2/3 covered by persistent calyx. Seeds (5 or)6-8 per locule, 6-8 × 2-3 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. after Jun.

Secondary forests, thickets, dry sunny mountain slopes, hills; below 1200 m. S Guangdong, S Guangxi, S Yunnan [Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

This plant is xerophilous. The wood is hard and valuable for woodcuts. The young fruit is used as a spice for cooking. The roots, bark, and twigs are used as a medicine for colds and diarrhea. The young leaves are used a substitute for tea.


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