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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Campanulaceae | Codonopsis

39. Codonopsis convolvulacea Kurz, J. Bot. 11: 195. 1873.

鸡蛋参 ji dan shen

Roots tuberous, ovoid-globose or ovoid, 2.5-5 × 1-1.5 cm. Stems twining, usually with a few branches, up to more than 1 m, glabrous. Leaves alternate or sometimes opposite, evenly distributed along stems; petiole absent or to 22 mm; blade linear-lanceolate to ovate or deltoid, 2-10 × 0.4-3.5 cm, base cuneate, rounded, truncate, or cordate, margin entire, subentire, sinuous-crenate, or serrate, apex obtuse, acute, or acuminate. Flowers solitary, terminal on main stems and branches; pedicels 2-12 cm, glabrous. Calyx tube adnate to ovary up to top, obconical, 3-7 × 4-10 mm, glabrous, 10-ribbed; lobes narrowly triangular-lanceolate, 4-11 × 1-5 mm, glabrous, margin entire, apex acuminate or acute; sinus between lobes narrow, pointed or slightly obtuse. Corolla pale blue or blue-purple, rotate, 5-fid to near base; lobes elliptic, 1-3.5 × 0.6-1.2 cm, apex acute. Filaments slightly dilated and ciliate at base, 1-3 mm; anthers 4-5 mm. Superior part of capsule broadly conical, valves ca. 4 mm; inferior part obconical, 10-16 × ca. 8 mm. Seeds numerous, brown-yellow, oblong, ca. 1.5 mm, wingless. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct.

Forests, open woods, forest margins, thickets, grassy slopes, pastures, meadows; 1000-4600 m. W Guizhou, SW Sichuan, S and SE Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, N Myanmar, Nepal].

Two of us (Lammers and Klein) do not agree with the broad treatment of Codonopsis convolvulacea adopted here, i.e., with C. forrestii, C. grey-wilsonii, and C. vinciflora treated as subspecies of C. convolvulacea, with C. limprichtii, C. efilamentosa, and C. mairei included in the synonymy of C. convolvulacea subsp. forrestii, and with C. limprichtii var. pinifolia included in the synonymy of C. graminifolia. Instead, based on our analysis of herbarium material including types, we recognize seven morphologically discrete entities. The nature of the differences distinguishing them suggests each is reproductively isolated from the others and so we treat them as species: C. convolvulacea (including C. forrestii var. heterophylla), C. efilamentosa, C. forrestii (including C. forrestii var. hirsuta), C. grey-wilsonii, C. limprichtii (including C. graminifolia and C. limprichtii var. pinifolia), C. mairei (including C. retroserrata), and C. vinciflora. We also recognize an eighth species, C. macrophylla Lammers & L. L. Klein, known only in cultivation but believed to be from Xizang. See Lammers and Klein (Bot. Stud. (Taipei) 51: 553-561. 2010). However, one of us (Hong) notes that the taxonomy of this complex has been extremely controversial in the past, with several different classifications having been proposed. Based on critical examination of all available specimens in BM, E, K, KUN, and PE and recent field observations in S and SE Xizang and NW Yunnan, the C. convolvulacea complex is found to be extremely variable, particularly in the length of the petioles and in the shape, texture, and margin of the leaf blades. Some characters, e.g., shape of leaf blade, are merely a polymorphism within populations, and the characters distinguishing C. convolvulacea, C. forrestii, C. grey-wilsonii, and C. vinciflora are variable within geographic regions but are not distinct.

1 Leaf blade thinly membranous, margin usually serrate.   39c subsp. vinciflora
+ Leaf blade thickly papery, margin mostly entire, less often serrate   (2)
2 (1) Leaf blade mostly cordate (less often rounded) at base; corolla with a broad dark purple circle at base.   39d subsp. grey-wilsonii
+ Leaf blade truncate to cuneate at base; corolla with a narrow dark purple circle at base or without a dark purple circle at base   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blade lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, base rounded to cuneate, margin entire; petiole no more than 3 mm.   39a subsp. convolvulacea
+ Leaf blade deltoid or ovate to linear-lanceolate, base cordate or truncate to cuneate, margin entire, subentire, sinuous-crenate, or serrate; petiole 3-22 mm.   39b subsp. forrestii

Lower Taxa


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