11. Tribe CALENDULEAE
金盏花族 jin zhan hua zu
Authors: Yilin Chen & Bertil Nordenstam
Herbs, shrubs, or subshrubs, annual or perennial. Leaves often alternate. Capitula radiate, heterogamous. Involucre campanulate, hemispheric, or rarely conic; phyllaries 1-3(or 4)-seriate, often with scarious margins. Receptacle flat or convex, naked. Ray florets female, fertile or sterile, tube short; lamina yellow, orange, or white, sometimes pink to purple or blue, apically 3-denticulate. Style linear, glabrous, style branches obtuse, rarely acute. Disk florets bisexual or male, actinomorphic, funnel-shaped, 5-lobed. Anthers caudate at base. Style simple or minutely bifid, rare bifurcate, dorsally papillate or rarely hirsute. Corolla yellow or orange, rarely white. Achenes usually hard, thickened, sometimes with fleshy exocarp, terete, orbicular, obovate, or heteromorphic, curved or beaked. Pappus absent.
Twelve genera and ca. 120 species: mainly in S Africa, through tropical Africa to the Mediterranean, eastward to Iran; one species (introduced) in China.