12. Juniperus chinensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 2: 660; Mant. Pl. 1: 127. 1767.
圆柏 yuan bai
Shrubs or trees to 25 m, dioecious, rarely monoecious; bark grayish brown; crown of trees pyramidal to open, broad and irregular; branches spreading; branchlets straight or slightly curved, terete or 4-angled, 1-1.2 mm in diam. Leaves both scalelike and needlelike; needlelike leaves present on both young and adult plants, decussate or in whorls of 3, loosely arranged, ascending, nearly lanceolate, (3-)6-12 mm, with 2 white stomatal bands adaxially; scalelike leaves present on adult plants, decussate, closely appressed, 1.5-3 mm, abaxial gland near center, elliptic, slightly concave. Pollen cones yellow, ellipsoid, 4-6 × 2-3 mm; microsporophylls 14-18, each with 3 or 4 pollen sacs. Seed cones brown when ripe, usually glaucous, subglobose, 4-9 mm in diam., (1or)2- or 3(or 4)-seeded. Seeds ovoid, 3-6 × 2-5 mm, slightly flattened, ridged, with resin pits, apex blunt.
Mountains; 1400-2300 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, N Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, E Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Myanmar, E Russia].