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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

7. Aster sect. Alpigeni Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 24. 1832.

山菀组 shan wan zu

Chlamydites J. R. Drummond; Wardaster J. Small.

Herbs, perennial, usually simple, erect. Leaves basal (persistent or deciduous by anthesis) and cauline; blade spatulate or oblanceolate to ovate, oblong, or lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, margin flat, entire or serrate to coarsely serrate, rarely deeply pinnatifid, 1-veined. Capitula radiate, terminal, solitary at ends of scapiform stems, rarely 2-8 in corymbiform synflorescences. Involucres hemispheric to broadly campanulate; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, equal or subequal (outer sometimes shorter), rarely unequal, leaflike or upper part leaflike, not keeled, margin sometimes scarious. Receptacles flat or ± convex. Ray florets 1-seriate, 10-60(-100), purple, reddish, mauve, lavender, lilac, blue, pink, or white; disk floret limb funnelform to narrowly funnelform, sometimes campanulate, lobes equal. Achenes broadly to narrowly obovoid or oblong to oblanceoloid, ± compressed, 2(-4)-ribbed. Pappus of ray and disk florets 1-4-seriate, of persistent, rarely caducous, numerous free bristles, innermost series clavate, outermost series of short bristles, sometimes scales.

About 50 species: C, NE, and SW Asia, Europe, and North America; 44 species (28 endemic) in China.

1 Outer phyllary margin broadly scarious   (2)
+ Outer phyllary margin leaflike or hardened basally, sometimes narrowly or broadly scarious   (4)
2 (1) Phyllaries linear to obovate-oblong; capitula 2-8, in corymbiform synflorescences.   121 A. senecioides
+ Phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; capitula terminal, solitary   (3)
3 (2) Phyllaries 6-12 mm; plants 3-15 cm tall.   122 A. batangensis
+ Phyllaries 5-7 mm; plants ca. 45 cm tall.   123 A. rockianus
4 (1) Pappus 3- or 4-seriate, inner series of bristles equaling disk corollas, white, whitish, or somewhat tinged red, outermost series of scales   (5)
+ Pappus 2-4-seriate, of barbellate bristles, sometimes outer series of few slender bristles or scales   (16)
5 (4) Phyllaries unequal, outer shorter than inner ones; leaf margin pinnatisect.   120 A. bipinnatisectus
+ Phyllaries subequal or equal; leaf margin entire or remotely serrate to serrulate   (6)
6 (5) Ray floret lamina linear-lanceolate   (7)
+ Ray floret lamina linear   (11)
7 (6) Plants with tuberoid roots   (8)
+ Plants long rhizomatous   (9)
8 (7) Involucres 6-9 mm in diam., phyllaries 1-1.5 mm wide; disk florets orange-yellow, lobes minutely purple stipitate glandular.   109 A. asteroides
+ Involucres 6-7 mm in diam., phyllaries 1.5-3 mm wide; disk florets yellow, purplish brown distally, lobes sparsely minutely stipitate glandular.   110 A. likiangensis
9 (7) Involucres 2-3 cm in diam.; disk florets yellow or purplish tinged.   113 A. tsarungensis
+ Involucres 1.5-2(-3) cm in diam.; disk florets orange to yellow   (10)
10 (9) Plants densely or sparsely villous, usually also glandular, or leaves glabrate; involucres 1.5-2(-3) cm in diam., phyllaries 1-2 mm wide.   111 A. flaccidus
+ Plants densely white hirsute or villous or tomentose; involucres ca. 1.5 cm in diam., phyllaries ca. 1 mm wide.   112 A. hololachnus
11 (6) Stems 5-12 cm.   119 A. brevis
+ Stems 13-75 cm   (12)
12 (11) Phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 1-1.5 mm wide, apex acuminate to long acuminate   (13)
+ Phyllaries (1-)2-5 mm wide, apex acute or acuminate   (14)
13 (12) Inner phyllary margin scarious, abaxially brown stipitate glandular.   117 A. lipskii
+ Phyllary margin narrowly scarious, villous, eglandular, inner series often glabrate.   118 A. farreri
14 (12) Phyllaries dark colored stipitate glandular, ± villous along veins; disk florets orange to yellow, apex blackish or brownish purple.   114 A. diplostephioides
+ Phyllaries white villous, sometimes glandular; disk florets yellow to orange   (15)
15 (14) Middle and upper cauline leaves lanceolate or oblong to oblanceolate; involucres 1.5-2.5 cm in diam., phyllaries 0.8-4(-5) mm wide.   115 A. yunnanensis
+ Middle and upper cauline leaves lanceolate to linear; involucres 0.8-0.9 cm in diam., phyllaries 1.5-2 mm wide.   116 A. setchuenensis
16 (4) Phyllaries lanate   (17)
+ Phyllaries abaxially pilose, pilosulose, scabridulous, strigillose, strigose, hirsute-villous, hirsutulous, hispidulous, villous or villosulous to lanate, glabrate, or glabrous, sometimes glandular   (18)
17 (16) Disk corolla tube and limb sparsely villosulous, lobes lanate.   107 A. prainii
+ Disk corolla tube and limb without long hairs.   108 A. neolanuginosus
18 (16) Phyllaries leaflike at least apically, apex acute or acuminate   (19)
+ Phyllaries of outer series leaflike or leaflike above, often hardened at base, apex rounded, obtuse, acute or acuminate   (30)
19 (18) Pappus brown, purplish, or reddish brown, sometimes also yellowish at base   (20)
+ Pappus white or whitish, reddish, yellowish, or straw-colored to brownish   (25)
20 (19) Achenes not winged   (21)
+ Achenes winged   (23)
21 (20) Pappus 3-seriate, outermost series of short bristles or scales, inner series of distally brown bristles; achenes oblanceolate, sparsely strigose; ray florets 25-30, lamina 10-20 mm.   101 A. latibracteatus
+ Pappus 2-4-seriate, outermost series of scales or slender bristles, inner series of reddish brown or brown bristles; achenes obovoid; ray florets 44-100, lamina 20-30 mm   (22)
22 (21) Pappus 3- or 4-seriate, outermost series of few slender bristles or none, inner series of barbellate bristles; achenes glabrous or distally glabrate, minutely stipitate glandular.   103 A. bietii
+ Pappus 2-seriate, outermost series of narrow to broad scales, inner series of barbellate bristles; achenes sparsely strigillose, eglandular.   102 A. bulleyanus
23 (20) Basal leaves present at anthesis, middle and upper cauline leaves oblong to linear-lanceolate.   106 A. jeffreyanus
+ Basal leaves withered at anthesis, middle and upper cauline leaves ovate, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate   (24)
24 (23) Capitula 3.5-4 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries 5-7 mm wide, hispidulous; lamina ca. 14 × 0.7 mm; pappus longer than tube of disk florets.   104 A. platylepis
+ Capitula 3-7.5 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries 1-4 mm wide, sparsely pilose to glabrate; lamina 15-35 × 1-3 mm; pappus 1-4 mm.   105 A. brachytrichus
25 (19) Stems erect.   100 A. retusus
+ Stems ascending   (26)
26 (25) Plants with long slender stolons (to 30 cm).   99 A. stracheyi
+ Plants without stolons or with short stolons   (27)
27 (26) Plants eglandular; pappus straw-colored to brownish reddish brown   (28)
+ Plants minutely stipitate glandular; pappus whitish to straw-colored or reddish based   (29)
28 (27) Phyllaries leaflike, margin broadly scarious; ray florets 11-30; achenes strigose distally.   95 A. salwinensis
+ Phyllaries membranous, apex leaflike in outer series, inner bristles with broadly scarious margins; ray florets 13-17; achenes densely strigose.   96 A. tientschwanensis
29 (27) Pappus whitish to straw-colored; phyllaries 2.5-3.5 mm wide; ray florets 40-70.   97 A. himalaicus
+ Pappus reddish based, whitish above; phyllaries 3-5 mm wide; ray florets 80 or more.   98 A. techinensis
30 (18) Pappus purplish to reddish- or purplish brown, or brown, equaling or shorter than disk florets, rarely somewhat longer   (31)
+ Pappus white, dirty white, straw-colored, purplish, or buff, ± equaling or longer, rarely shorter, than disk florets, often with outer series of few short, slender bristles   (35)
31 (30) Pappus reddish brown or yellowish, of many bristles; capitula terminal, solitary, or 2-4, solitary at ends of stem and branches   (32)
+ Pappus purplish to reddish- or purplish brown, or brown, of few bristles; capitula terminal, solitary, rarely solitary at ends of branches   (33)
32 (31) Capitula terminal, solitary; phyllaries densely pilose; ray florets 11-13(-15), white; plants 4-7 cm tall, without stolons.   93 A. fanjingshanicus
+ Capitula 1-4, solitary at ends of stems and branches; phyllaries abaxially sparsely scabridulous; ray florets 12-20, blue-purple; plants 24-40 cm tall, with stolons.   94 A. giraldii
33 (31) Phyllaries squarrose, both surfaces densely hirsutulous; ray florets ca. 100.   92 A. megalanthus
+ Phyllaries appressed or sometimes squarrose, ± hairy or glabrous abaxially; ray florets 30-70   (34)
34 (33) Rhizomes slender, often with stolons; leaves scabridulous or hirsute, phyllaries villosulous.   90 A. tongolensis
+ Rhizomes robust; leaves glabrate to sparsely pilosulose, phyllaries abaxially sparsely to densely pilosulose distally or glabrous, margin densely pilose-ciliate or eciliate.   91 A. souliei
35 (30) Pappus purplish straw-colored; leaf surfaces strigose.   89 A. handelii
+ Pappus white or dirty white, reddish, purplish, buff, or straw-colored; leaf surfaces ± villous, hirsute-villous, pilose, scabrous, strigose, or strigillose   (36)
36 (35) Phyllaries oblong or lanceolate, apex acute, 1-1.5 mm wide; involucre 0.7-1.5 cm in diam   (37)
+ Phyllaries lanceolate to oblong or oblanceolate, spatulate, oblong, or linear, apex obtuse, rounded, acute, or sometimes acuminate, 1.3-3 mm wide, involucres 0.6-2 cm in diam   (38)
37 (36) Basal leaves withered and lower cauline withered or present at anthesis; stems 15-45 cm tall; pappus straw-colored or sometimes purplish.   86 A. lingulatus
+ Basal and lower cauline leaves present at anthesis; stems 40-75(-100) cm tall; pappus whitish.   88 A. neoelegans
38 (36) Cauline leaves rather similar in size and ± evenly distributed on stem; involucre 2-2.8 cm in diam.; phyllaries oblanceolate, 2-3 mm wide, glabrate (margin ciliate).   87 A. tricephalus
+ Cauline leaves reduced upward; involucres 0.6-2 cm in diam.; phyllaries 1.3-2.5 mm wide, densely or sparsely hairy   (39)
39 (38) Basal leaves withered at anthesis.   85 A. ionoglossus
+ Basal leaves present or withered and marcescent at anthesis   (40)
40 (39) Pappus reddish or buff, barbellate above.   84 A. barbellatus
+ Pappus white, dirty white, barbellate throughout   (41)
41 (40) Disk floret lobes unequal.   83 A. takasagomontanus
+ Disk floret lobes equal   (42)
42 (41) Phyllaries unequal.   82 A. heterolepis
+ Phyllaries equal or subequal   (43)
43 (42) Involucres 0.6-1 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries lanceolate to oblong or oblanceolate, apex rounded or obtuse to acute or acuminate; capitula solitary, terminal.   80 A. alpinus
+ Involucres 1-1.2 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries oblanceolate or spatulate, apex rounded or acute; capitula 2-30 in terminal corymbiform synflorescences, rarely solitary.   81 A. oreophilus

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